Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Modelling the Welsh Housing stock

Computer Thermal Modelling using TRNSYS [9] and ECOTECT [10] software programmes provided an estimate of the thermal demands in the dwelling types modelled, as well as the potential carbon savings achievable through changing the heating, cooling and DHW demands from being primarily met by natural gas to primarily met by Solar Thermal. An existing dwelling was chosen to be representative for each of the housing types highlighted in Error! Reference source not found. and was then physically surveyed in detail [3]. Each dwelling was then modelled in ECOTECT before exporting the physical details into the TRNSYS simulation software to undertaken the energy demand assessments.

Подпись: Figure 2. ECOTECT model of house type 3

Only 12 out of the 13 housing types have been modelled to date — the most recent house type has not yet been modelled. The ECOTECT model for the largest dwelling, house 3, is shown in figure 2 as an example of the modelling undertaken. This image shows how the Solar Thermal collectors have been arranged for this property for the purposes of assessing the potential solar yield.

Table 2. Predicted annual energy demands for electricity, space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water

No

Dwelling type

Area

(m2)

Elec Use (kWh) (kWh/m2)

Space Heating (kWh) (kWh/m2)

Space Cooling (kWh) (kWh/m2)

DHW

(kWh)

Total

thermal

(kWh)

1

Pre-1850 Detached House

87.27

3,090

35.41

11,139

127.6

30

0.3

2,170

13,339

2

Pre-1850 Converted Flat

103.52

3,090

29.85

24,896

240.5

89

0.9

2,170

27,155

3

1850-1919 Semi Detached House

220.09

3,090

14.04

48,402

219.9

24

0.1

2,170

50,596

4

1920-1944 Semi Detached House

93.32

3,090

33.11

19,855

212.8

56

0.6

2,170

22,081

5

1945 — 1964 Low-rise Flat

65.74

3,090

47

8,975

136.5

133

2.0

2,170

11,278

6

1945-1964 Semi-detached House

89.17

3,090

34.65

14,145

158.6

293

3.3

2,170

16,608

7

1965-1980 Detached House

116.72

3,090

26.47

17,667

151.4

99

0.8

2,170

19,936

8

1965-1980 Mid-terrace House

105.42

3,090

29.31

16,691

158.3

69

0.7

2,170

18,930

9

1981-1999 Low-rise Flat

44.70

3,090

69.13

3,636

81.3

525

11.7

2,170

6,331

10

1981-1999 Mid-terrace House

55.82

3,090

55.36

5,949

106.6

124

2.2

2,170

8,243

11

2000-2006 Semi-detached House

74.92

3,090

41.24

10,645

142.1

25

0.3

2,170

12,840

12

Post-2006 High-rise Flat

57.47

3,090

53.77

2,393

41.6

234

4.1

2,170

4,797

Table 2, taken from Ampatzi [5], presents the main details and findings of this thermal

modelling. This

version has been amended to include m2 figures for each dwelling as well as electricity demands.

It can be seen that the dwellings thermal demand generally reduces per m2 as their construction date gets closer to the present day. It can also be seen that the internal gains from electricity use also become more important in the overall energy balance as the houses become newer. There are anomalies as would be expected from Case Studies — in particular House 1 which is explained by it being a very energy efficient refurbishment. Interestingly, this house compares very favourably with House 11 built to 2000 regulations, showing the potential for bringing old housing stock back into use.

RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION IN ARMENIA:. GOING FOR IMPERATIVE

A. Lalayan1* and V. Afyan2

1 SolarEn, LLC, 2/2 Shrjanayin Str., Yerevan 0068, Armenia

2 SolarEn, LLC, 2/2 Shrjanayin Str., Yerevan 0068, Armenia

* arthur lalayan@solaren. com

Abstract

This article discusses the need to meet the challenges in renewable energy development in Armenia through comprehensive education. These challenges require going for changes in perception of the reality related to the stage of technological development and future energy demand taking into account scarcity of the organic fuel and environmental implications of the traditional energy sources. This applies from generation to consumption, and from planning to education in general. Renewable energy education is imperative for Armenia. It should start from schools but also involve and be comprehended by public and statesmen. Introductory classes in schools and both no-degree and degree classes in universities, public awareness and decision-makers training programs will help in understanding and utilizing the country’s indigenous and sustainable energy resources.

Keywords: Renewable energy, Armenia, education

1. Introduction

Both developed and developing countries need in state support to promote renewable energy technologies as sustainable energy solution for tomorrow. In this respect education and public awareness of not only technical aspects but also benefits the renewable energy can offer to general public and to the state is crucial.

The energy sector of Armenia was integrated in unified energy system of the former Soviet Union, during which cheap energy was available to population. Currently, the country is heavily dependent on imported fuel (natural gas and nuclear fuel). To enhance country’s energy security and reduce dependence on foreign supplies Armenia needs to develop its own renewable energy resources.

These challenges require going for changes in perception of the reality related to the stage of technological development and future energy demand taking into account scarcity of the organic fuel and environmental implications of the traditional energy sources. This applies from generation to consumption, and from planning to education in general. A number of programs to promote renewable energy in Armenia were implemented since mid 1990s, and only limited disciplines within the general power engineering programmes incorporate basics knowledge in renewable energy. Education and public awareness projects included small scale publications for general public and workshops or seminars under donor funded projects. An introductory and non­mandatory renewable energy classes are incorporated in very few universities’ curricula. However, this is not enough to get public accept and adopt renewable energy in their lives. Adoption of new technology will require new knowledge, skills and change in mentality. Spreading the word becomes crucial, preaching and teaching — imperative.

The exhibition at the Central State Archive

At the Central State Archive, documents from public and private archives will be on display in an area of 600 square meters to recount the efforts made by the pioneers of the 19th and 20th centuries in order to achieve with solar energy the same things accomplished with fossil and nuclear fuels, i. e. heating and cooling buildings, illuminating day and night living and working spaces, powering farms, industries and other human activities.

Gaetano Vinaccia (1889-1971), an architect and city-planner, is the author of dozens of little known publications and articles on solar urbanism and architecture. Among them is the 385 page book “Il corso del sole in urbanistica ed edilizia” (“The path of the Sun in urban planning and building construction”), published in 1939 in which Vinaccia reviewed systemic architectural and city-planning aspects of the use of solar energy over the ages, in the conviction that the past has to be placed at the centre of any enterprise headed for the future [8][9].

Giovanni Francia (1911-1980), a mathematician and engineer, thought that solar heat, abundant at low density and temperature, needed to be collected at high temperatures in order to be useful in modern societies to run industries and power plants. He was the first person ever to apply the Fresnel Reflector Technology principle in real systems, linear, in Marseille in 1963, and point focus, in S. Ilario in 1965. He envisioned a modern city powered only with solar energy. In 1970, before the 1973 oil crisis, working with two young architects, Bruna Moresco and Karim Armifeiz, and other collaborators, Francia developed a visionary project for a model energy-independent city, with a population of about 100,000 that would rely on solar energy. He called it "The solar city — Hypothesis for a new urban structure [10][11]."

Подпись: Fig. 8 . Two different approaches, vertical and horizontal, offering the same living space, Gaetano Vinaccia (1889-1971), “For the City of Tomorrow” [8][9]. Подпись: Fig. 7 . Model of a solar powered city presented by Giovanni Francia (1911-1980) in Nice (France) in 1970 [10] [11].

Francia was one of the first people in modern times, if not the very first, to propose the idea of the solar city so explicitly. It was precisely because of this pioneering intuition of Francia’s that GSES and CONASES decided to organize the 1st Solar Cities exhibition in Genoa, and to honour him with a 20-minute DVD [12]."

In Rome new documents and pictures on the Solar city project preserved in Brescia in the Francia Archive will be on display.

At the venue of the Central State Archive highly visible projects of solar buildings and cities headed for the future, selected either from Italy or from other countries, will be exhibited as well.

6. Conclusion

The "Italian Solar City Travelling Exhibition" is part of the “Italian National Solar Energy History Project” whose purposes are first and foremost cultural. It aims at changing the perception people have about solar energy and at envisioning that it is possible to combine the knowledge of the past, as recommended by Vinaccia, with the introduction of the most advanced solar technologies, as those pioneered by Giovanni Francia, on a large scale in a modern or future city [13].

The special symbolic environments offered by the Museum of Roman Civilization and the State Central Archive, should contribute in addressing the scientific challenges and research directions toward either the past or the future, in order to use the best of both as suggested by Norbert Lechner. The exhibition will show how to rethink our future energy infrastructure and its technological, organisational and cultural implications. How to supply solar-generated electricity, heating and cooling to homes, hospitals, schools, industries and offices, for transportation and other economic activities. It will especially focus on the importance of solar light and heat, as directly available in nature, for day lighting, heating and cooling buildings, that are the greatest consumers of energy in modern cities.

6. Acknowledgements

In writing this paper I had the benefit of accounts from and contacts with many people. I would like to thank in particular, C. F. Giuliani, M. Martelli, R. Merola, G. Nebbia, P. P. Poggio, L. Ungaro, U. Wienke and the heirs of G. Francia, and G. Vinaccia.

References

[1] K. Butti, J. Perlin, Solar Houses and Cities in the Ancient Mediterranean, Sapere 2006; www. gses. it 2008.

[2] C. Silvi, S. Los, The Italian Solar City Travelling Exhibition, Poster Presentation, Proceedings International Solar Cities Congress, Oxford, 2006; www. gses. it 2008.

[3] C. Silvi, Prima edizione a Genova della mostra su storia e futuro dell’energia solare nelle citta (First exhibition in Genoa on the history and future of solar energy in cities), Scienza e Tecnica, December 2006; www. gses. it.

[4] Videoclip, Le citta solari al Festival della Scienza di Genoa (Solar Cities at the Genoa Science Festival), You Tube 2006; www. gses. it/conases/genova. php.

[5] N. Lechner, The Future of Architecture: Sustainable Architecture, Lecture delivered in China in 2007 (private communication).

[6] L. Ungaro, Perche una mostra su mostra sull’energia solare al Museo della Civilta Romana: sinergie possibili (An Exhibition on Solar Energy at the Museum of Roman Civilization; Possible Synergies),

Seminar “I pionieri dell’energia solare incontrano le nuove generazioni (Solar energy pioneers meet new generations)”, Rome (Italy), April 4, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[7] C. F. Giuliani, Evidenze archeologiche e fonti storiche per la riscoperta dell’uso dell’energia solare in alcuni ambienti costruiti nell’antichita (Archeological Evidence and Historical Sources for Rediscovering Sun’s Energy Use in the Built Environment in Antiquity), Seminar “I pionieri dell’energia solare incontrano le nuove generazioni (Solar energy pioneers meet new generations)”, Rome (Italy), April 4, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[8] G. Vinaccia, Per la citta di domani (For the City of Tomorrow), Fratelli Palombi Editori, Volume II, Roma, 1943 — 1952.

[9] C. Silvi, The work of Italian solar energy pioneer Giovanni Francia (1911 — 1980), Proceedings ISES SWC 2005, Orlando, Florida (USA); www. gses. it 2008.

[10] Nice-Matin, L’utilization industrielle de la ‘houille d’or’ premier pas vers les (futuriste) villes del soleil, Vendredi 9 Octobre 1970.

[11] G. Francia, Solar City Project — Hypothesis for an Urban Structure, Proceedings COMPLES meeting, Marseilles, Bulletin 19, April 1971.

[12] C. Silvi, R. Torti, L. Francia, DVD ‘Giovanni Francia’s Contribution to the Idea of a Solar City’, Oct. 2006.

[13] C. Silvi, The Italian National Solar Energy History Project, Poster presentation, Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress 2007, Bejing (China), Sept. 18-21, 2007.

Study Performances of Thermosyphon with Heat Source near the Top and Heat Sink at the Bottom

E. Yandri1* N. Miura1, T. Kawashima1, T. Fujisawa1, M. Yoshinaga2

1Solar Energy Research Group, Department of Vehicle System Engineering, Faculty of Creative Engineering,
Kanagawa Institute of Technology, 243-0292 Atsugi, Japan

2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 468-8502 Nagoya, Japan

Corresponding Author, vandri@,ctr. kanagawa-it. ac. jp
Abstract

Solar energy can be converted into electricity with Photovoltaic cells and to heat with solar collectors. Especially for solar collectors, the heat collected can be utilized for both water heating and space heating applications. Solar collector researches for space and water heating has been developed and resulted many interesting designs, from simple thermosyphon systems with low maintenance to automatic operation systems which are depended so much with mechanical and electrical properties like pumps, valves, sensors, etc. Recently, a device which transfered heat from the hot reservoir near the top to the cold reservoir at the bottom was invented by Ipposhi et. al [6], called as the ITMI model. As same as the ITMI model was constructed and tested. We improved the ITMI model by proposing the IMT model. The first report was presented in SWC 2007 by comparing the performance of ITMI model and IMT model. The current experiments are completed with a digital flow mater of vapor in order to be able to calculate the heat energy transported. Some experimental parameters are varied in order to know the optimal operating condition for this IMT model. Heat input is varied for 100, 200, and 300W. Inclination angle between evaporator and top heat storage is varied for 0, 5, and 100. Level of heat store in the top heat storage are varied for 20, 110, and 200mm. Result shows that this IMT model can work better for all heat input (100, 200, 300W), and for all heat store in the top heat (20, 110, and 220mm) with inclination angle of 00, 50, 100. This model could be more interesting for water and space heating applications as more ecological approach.

Keywords: natural circulation, thermosyphon, solar energy

1. Introduction

Solar energy can be converted into electricity by Photovoltaic cells, heat by solar collectors, and both electricity and heat by hybrid photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) panels. The collected heat can be used for Space Heating and Solar Water Heating (SWH). A typical SWH system is a combination of solar collectors, an energy transfer system and a thermal storage system. SWHs are also characterized as open loop system (direct) which circulates potable water through the collectors and closed loop system (indirect) which uses antifreeze heat-transfer fluid such as polypropylene glycol to transfer heat from the collector to the potable water in the storage tank [2]. Depend on the way to circulate the working fluid, SWHs are divided into active system which uses a pump to circulate the working fluid such as water or polypropylene glycol through the collectors and passive system which circulates the working fluid naturally by the effect of the gravitational force [2]. The passive system calls also thermosyphon which means the heat transport device that can transport a large amount of heat using body forces (gravitational and centrifugal forces). Thermosyphon has a great advantage because of no electrical energy and simple structure. That is why, the thermosyphon researches are not intended for SWH application only, but for many applications. Thermosyphon was studied as an alternative liquid cooling technique in which heat is transferred as heat of evaporation from evaporator to condenser with relatively small temperature difference [3]. Thermosyphon radiator used for domestic and office heating was studied and its performance has been tested with Freon 11, acetone, methanol and water as working fluid [1]. A model of the two-phase flow and heat transfer in the closed loop two phase thermosyphon (CLTPT) involving co-current natural circulation, which is focus for electronics cooling that exhibit complex two-phase flow patterns due to the closed loop geometry and small tube size [4]. The main reason to develop a thermosyphon with a heat source near the top and heat sink at the bottom is to solve weight problem when a thermosyphon installed on the roof [7].

Measured performance from a Solar Thermal Air Conditioning system in Wales

The monitored performance of a prototype STACS system mounted on a rooftop in Cardiff, Wales showed that a thermal COP of around 0.6 could be achieved in cooling mode, and that the efficiency of the evacuated tube collectors ranged between 0.7 and 0.85 depending on orientation and angle [7]. This data was used in the modelling predictions shown above, so the STACS system and component efficiencies are based on performance actually achieved using Wales weather conditions.

3. Carbon Emissions from the Welsh Housing stock

Using Table 2 and assuming all the current heating and DHW thermal demands are met from gas, and the cooling demand is met from electricity, then we can convert these demands into Carbon Dioxide equivalent emissions using the latest UK conversion factors [11]. The DEFRA guidance suggests using 0.43 kgCO2/kWh emissions factor for electricity for displaced electricity, and 0.185 kgCO2/kWh emissions factor for natural gas (gross CV). Table 3 shows the calculated annual carbon dioxide emissions figures per house type using these figures. It can be observed that the predicted annual carbon dioxide emissions are between 40 and 60 kgCO2/kWh per m2 regardless of the age or size of property.

No

Dwelling type

Elec Use (kgCO2) (kgCO2/m2)

Space Heating (kgCO2) (kgCO2/m2)

Space Cooling (kgCO2) (kgCO2/m2)

DHW Use (kgCO2) (kgCO2/m2)

Total Emissions (kgCO2) (kgCO2/m2)

1

Pre-1850 Detached House

1,329

15.2

2,061

23.6

12.9

0.1

401

4.6

3,804

43.6

2

Pre-1850 Converted Flat

1,329

12.8

4,606

44.5

38.3

0.4

401

3.9

6,374

61.6

3

1850-1919 Semi Detached House

1,329

6.0

8,954

40.7

10.3

0.0

401

1.8

10,695

48.6

4

1920-1944 Semi Detached House

1,329

14.2

3,673

39.4

24.1

0.3

401

4.3

5,427

58.2

5

1945 — 1964 Low-rise Flat

1,329

20.2

1,660

25.3

57.2

0.9

401

6.1

3,448

52.4

6

1945-1964 Semi-detached House

1,329

14.9

2,617

29.3

126.0

1.4

401

4.5

4,473

50.2

7

1965-1980 Detached House

1,329

11.4

3,268

28.0

42.6

0.4

401

3.4

5,041

43.2

8

1965-1980 Mid-terrace House

1,329

12.6

3,088

29.3

29.7

0.3

401

3.8

4,848

46.0

9

1981-1999 Low-rise Flat

1,329

29.7

673

15.0

225.8

5.1

401

9.0

2,629

58.8

10

1981-1999 Mid-terrace House

1,329

23.8

1,101

19.7

53.3

1.0

401

7.2

2,884

51.7

11

2000-2006 Semi-detached House

1,329

17.7

1,969

26.3

10.8

0.1

401

5.4

3,710

49.5

12

Post-2006 High-rise Flat

1,329

23.1

443

7.7

100.6

1.8

401

7.0

2,273

39.6

Table 3. Predicted annual carbon emissions for electricity, space heating, cooling and domestic hot water

image051Figure 3, derived from the data used in Ampatzi [5], shows the predicted solar yields and direct solar use in each dwelling as a percentage of the predicted dwelling annual thermal demands. It can be seen that the dwellings are capable of generating between 20 — 95% of their annual thermal demands via their collectors, but can generally only displace between 10 — 20% of these thermal demands from use of the solar energy when little or no storage is present.

Подпись:Table 4, again derived from the data used in Ampatzi [5], shows the predicted carbon emission savings that could be made in the modelled dwellings through use of the tested solar thermal system and components as discussed in Agyenim [7]. Two sets of savings are shown — the first is with the direct use of Solar Thermal within the dwelling, i. e. with little or no Thermal Energy Storage (TES). The second set of savings show the potential savings achievable if sufficient TES capacity were installed to use the currently excess solar yield in each house. An overall exergy efficiency for the TES system of 40% is assumed. A further set of calculations still need to be undertaken showing the TES capacity needed to achieve various solar fractions in the houses with realistic system losses. However these two examples help to set reasonable limits to the range of carbon emission savings practically achievable within each house type.

Table 4 shows that, considering only the direct use of Solar Thermal within the dwellings, the potential reduction in the dwellings’ total carbon emissions (i. e. including electricity) range from around 4% to 11%, with 8 — 10% savings being achieved in most of the buildings. The table also shows that the use of a 40% efficient TES system could increase these savings to between 6% and 25%. As a general

observation it appears that TES could potentially double the potential carbon savings, though this would clearly depend on the design of the TES system.

The table also shows that thermal demands only constitute around 70% of the total carbon emissions from domestic properties in Wales. If we consider only these demands then Solar Thermal can potentially save around 14 — 36% of these carbon emissions.

Table 4. Predicted reductions in total carbon emissions through the direct and indirect use of solar thermal energy to meet the thermal demands in each dwelling.

No

1

Dwelling type

Total

(kgCO2)

Emissions

thermal

demands

only

(kgCO2)

Direct

fraction of total thermal demand

Solar

carbon

emission

savings

(kgCO2)

%

reduction in carbon emissions from direct solar use

Solar

Yield

fraction of total thermal demand

Carbon

emission

savings — 40% efficient

TES

(kgCO2)

%

reduction in total carbon emissions using TES

Pre-1850 Detached House

3,804

2,475

0.12

303

8%

0.40

576

15%

2

Pre-1850 Converted Flat

6,374

5,045

0.13

657

10%

0.60

1595

25%

3

1850-1919 Semi Detached House

10,695

9,366

0.12

1,140

11%

0.48

2470

23%

4

1920-1944 Semi Detached House

5,427

4,099

0.12

509

9%

0.34

856

16%

5

1945 — 1964 Low-rise Flat

3,448

2,119

0.10

203

6%

0.20

292

8%

6

1945-1964 Semi-detached House

4,473

3,144

0.12

373

8%

0.39

711

16%

7

1965-1980 Detached House

5,041

3,712

0.11

398

8%

0.42

862

17%

8

1965-1980 Mid-terrace House

4,848

3,519

0.11

374

8%

0.41

801

17%

9

1981-1999 Low-rise Flat

2,629

1,300

0.22

290

11%

0.95

666

25%

10

1981-1999 Mid-terrace House

2,884

1,555

0.17

257

9%

0.72

602

21%

11

2000-2006 Semi-detached House

3,710

2,382

0.12

296

8%

0.33

494

13%

12

Post-2006 High-rise Flat

2,273

945

0.09

82

4%

0.20

125

6%

4. Conclusions

Whilst this paper cannot provide estimates for the potential savings from the housing types not assessed in this study, the similar levels of potential percentage savings predicted for each of the house types modelled indicates that these savings levels are likely to be repeated in other house types as well.

It would seem therefore that Solar Thermal systems could potentially contribute a reduction of between 10 — 25% in the total carbon emissions from the Welsh Housing stock using only the practically useful roof areas found on each dwelling. These levels of predicted Carbon Emissions savings are significant in the context of the overall Welsh Housing stock, including existing housing, assuming that the Case Study models are a representative sample of the full stock.

The findings from House 1 also imply that even old housing stock can be brought back into energy efficient use when current energy efficiency techniques are used in its renovation (house 1 being a listed building). In conjunction with Solar Thermal techniques these savings can be very substantial.

Overall, it would appear that Solar Thermal should be strongly considered as an ingredient in Wales’ move towards a low carbon economy.

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by a grant from the Wales Energy Research Centre.

References

[1] Welsh Assembly Government, Renewable Energy Route Map for Wales, 2008. http://new. wales. gov. uk/consultation/desh/2008/renewable/routemape. pdf? lang=en

[2] Ampatzi E, Knight I — “The potential application of residential solar thermal cooling in the UK and the role of thermal energy storage technologies” — Proceedings 2nd PALENC Conference and 28th AIVC Conference, pp 48 — 53, Crete, Greece September 2007. ISBN 978-960-6746-02-4

[3] Rhodes M, Knight I, Agyenim F — “Categorising the Existing Welsh Housing Stock in Terms of Heating and Cooling Demand and Thermal Storage Capacity” — Proceedings 2nd PALENC Conference and 28th AIVC Conference, pp 818 — 824, Crete, Greece September 2007. ISBN 978-960-6746-02-4

[4] Agyenim F, Knight I, Rhodes M — “The use of phase change material (PCM) to improve the coefficient of performance of a chiller for meeting domestic cooling in Wales” — Proceedings 2nd PALENC Conference and 28th AIVC Conference, pp 1 — 5, Crete, Greece September 2007. ISBN 978-960-6746-02-4

[5] Ampatzi E, Knight I, Rhodes M, Agyenim F — “The role of thermal energy storage in helping solar thermal reduce the heating, cooling and DHW demands of the Housing Stock in a Northern European Country” — Proceedings EUROSUN 1st. International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings, Lisbon,

Spain October 2008

[6] Rhodes M, Agyenim F, Knight I, Ampatzi E — “Parameters Affecting the Aesthetic Integration of Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling Systems in Domestic Properties in a Northern European Country” — Proceedings EUROSUN 1st. International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings, Lisbon,

Spain October 2008

[7] Agyenim F, Knight I, Rhodes M, Ampatzi E — “A comparison of ‘real world’ and laboratory efficiencies for the solar collector and chiller components of a domestic solar air conditioning system” — Proceedings EUROSUN 1st. International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings, Lisbon, Spain October 2008

[8] Knight I, Kreutzer N, Manning M, Swinton M, Ribberink H — “Residential Cogeneration Systems:

European and Canadian Residential non-HVAC Electric and DHW Load Profiles ” — A Report of Subtask A of FC+COGEN-SIM: The Simulation of Building-Integrated Fuel Cell and Other Cogeneration Systems. Annex 42 of the International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme. 82 pages. May 2007. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2007. ISBN No.: 978-0-662­46221-7 Catalogue No.: M154-12/2007E

[9] TRNSYS, 2008 http://www. trnsys. com/ [accessed 14 June 2008].

[10] ECOTECT, 2008 http://www. ecotect. com/ [accessed 14 June 2008].

[11] DEFRA Guidelines to Defra’s Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors for Company Reporting, June 2008 http://www. defra. gov. uk/environment/business/envrp/pdf/ghg-cf-guidelines2008.pdf and http://www. defra. gov. uk/environment/business/envrp/pdf/ghg-cf-guidelines-annexes2008.pdf [accessed 13 August 2008]