Category Archives: SonSolar

Results and discussion

The results obtained with primary energy or energy-cost minimisation do not differ fundamentally, assuming the present power export tariff. In other words, it makes no sense with regard to energy and finances to run the rCHP with the unique goal of power genera­tion if there is no need for heating, since the electrical efficiency of rCHP is too low in comparison to larger power plants. This statement remains valid for systems with and without a thermal solar system. In the past, some complaints arose: the current bonus amount is claimed to be to low to ever reach break-even for a plant and should be increased. Simulation has shown that if the bonus is increased above the point where the sole export of electricity makes the system financially profitable (i. e. without heat use), then the environmental benefits of the rCHP vanish and the operation time of the solar thermal system drops dramatically. The rCHP is then operated continuously up to the point when the storage tank is full and the plant must be switched off for safety reasons. This threshold value depends upon the fuel price, power remuneration rate and the electrical efficiency of the rCHP.

As a conclusion, the power export bonus must be kept below this threshold. If this is not enough to make rCHP financially viable, then the government should offer investment subsidies (i. e. lending at a lower interest rate than the average bank rate). In any case, the incentive for a CHP plant has no influence on the decision to buy a solar thermal system or not.

If one wants to have rCHP and solar thermal systems working together, an easy solution is a seasonally dependent CHP bonus. This means that the bonus is set to zero during the period with high solar irradiation. During the space-heating period, the bonus is increased to a higher value than the constant value in order to compensate for the financial losses in the summer. Over a one-year period, the operator must end up with the same total for both bonus models. This paper specifically handles the case of the German official heating period (from September to the end of May).

The seasonally dependent bonus approach has been illustrated in Fig. 4. There, the bonus has been set above the threshold (in that case around 11 cents/kWh). In the event of a constant bonus, the solar yield of a cost-driven system drops by 60% in comparison to a system optimised for primary energy. If the bonus is only paid in the heating period, the solar yield of the cost-driven system falls only by 26%. At the same time, the operator does not suffers from any financial drawbacks since the total annual bonus is nearly the same.

In addition to better solar performance, the simulation results show that the primary energy consumption of the cost-led system is almost the same as that of a primary energy-led system (mostly thanks to the solar input). As a conclusion, a seasonally dependent bonus is not a tool to promote solar energy (the financial profit remains the same) but it prevents the displacement of solar systems by fossil-fuelled rCHP systems. It is advised to let the rCHP operator have the choice between the two bonus approaches. Thus, he can freely decide whether to purchase a solar thermal system or not.

A further case is a time-dependent remuneration model, where the grid operator varies the value of remuneration according to his needs for CHP power. Fig. 5 deals with that issue.

It has been assumed that the remuneration rate varies according to the price fluctuation at the Leipzig power exchange (LPX). Here again, the seasonally dependent bonus smoothes the displacement effect (from -43% to -19%). As a conclusion, the seasonally

dependent bonus model can partly redress the negative effect of time-variable remuneration on the solar yield.

Conclusion

The results of an investigation about the combination of solar thermal systems with rCHP in terms of energy and economy benefits have been summarised in this paper. The discussion is based on simulations of technical building services. The results gained show that under the current regulatory and institutional framework (that means that the bonus remains at current level), solar yields are not jeopardised by the CHP bonus concept. In the event, that the public grid relies more and more on rCHP power, there is a risk that solar systems are displaced by rCHP systems, which are commonly operated with fossil fuels.

A new concept that relies on a seasonally dependent bonus has been presented. Simulation results show that this concept can address the issue above.

Moreover, this study has shown the need for new intelligent control strategies for rCHP plants, that react to weather forecasts and heat and power load predictions and can consider the interaction between a building and the heat supply chain in order to optimise the yield of the plant in a such way that fossil fuel can be saved or energy cost are minimised.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the German Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in the framework of the Future Investment Programme (ZIP) and the research project “Umweltauswirkungen, Rahmenbedingungen und Markt — potenziale des dezentralen Einsatzes stationarer Brennstoffzellen” (Environmental effects, boundary conditions and market potential of distributed stationary fuel cells). Other project partners are DLR Stuttgart, IFEU Heidelberg, Wuppertal Institut, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum and ZSW Baden-Wurttemberg. The report of this study has been published as a book ([Krewitt et al. 2004]).

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Fig. 4: Thermal solar yield versus the rate of the CHP bonus in the case of a low-energy house. On the right-hand side, in comparison to a constant bonus of 12 cents/kWh througout the year, the CHP bonus has been set to zero during the summer and has been varied between 12 and 14 cents/kWh in the heating period. In this way, the performance of the solar thermal system could be improved and the total annual bonus remains almost unchanged.

Solar yield [kWh/a] or CHP bonus [EUR/a]

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primary energy led, energy cost led, constant energy cost led, seasonally constant bonus bonus dependent bonus

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Fig. 5: Variation of solar yield, total annual CHP bonus and primary energy consumption in the case of time-dependent remuneration. In the case of seasonally dependent

— 19%

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□ Solar yield [kWh/a] □ Total annual CHP bonus [EUR/a] □ Primary energy [kWh/a]

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Подпись: Solar yield [kWh/a] or CHP bonus [EUR/a]

bonus, the CHP bonus has been set to 0 cents/kWh during the summer and to 7 cents/kWh for the remaining part of the year

BritischeBotschaft Environment Team, British Embassy Berlin: Cogeneration Law Receives

2001

Cabinet Approval; Download at

http://www. britischebotschaft. de/en/embassy/environment/pdf/env- note_01-35.pdf (28.03.04); 2001

Bruch et al. 2003

Bruch, C., Krumbech, M., Mertikat, H.: HT-BZ zur Strom — und Warmeversorgung: Betriebserfahrungen mit Anlagen im RWE Brennstoffzellen-PaviNon, Essen; Tagungsband des OTTI Profiforum Brennstoffzellen; 6-8 Oktober 2003; Berlin; 2003

Cogen 99

Cogen Europe: An introduction to Micro-Cogeneration; Briefing 8; Download at

http://www. cogen. org/Downloadables/Publications/Briefing%20MicroCH P. pdf (25.03.04); 1999

Sicre 2004

Sicre, B.: Sustainable energy supply to very-low-energy buildings by means of CHP technologies and solar thermal energy; PhD thesis at the Chemnitz University of Technology; Fakultat fur Maschinenbau; In German; Chemnitz; 2004

Vetter u. Wittwer, 2002

Vetter, M., Wittwer, C.: Model-based development of control strategies for domestic fuel cell cogeneration plants; Proceedings of the French — German Fuel Cell Conference 2002; S. 1-6; Forbach-Saarbrucken; October 2002

Training Guides developed within the TREN — LdV Project

Laurentiu Fara1, Jim Hopwood2, Graham Spinks3, Anne Rennie3, Silvian Fara4, Dumitru Finta4, Andreas Karner5, Marc Timmer6, Sabina Scarpellini7, Tonia Damvakeraki8, Ionut

Radu1

1National Agency for Renewable Energy, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest 77206, Romania, Tel: +40 21 4119603, Fax: +40 21 4119962, anesr@nare. renem. Dub. ro 2The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, c/o ExxonMobil Chemical Ltd, Hythe, Southampton, SO45 3NP, UK, Tel: +44 2380 895109, Fax: +44 2380 895909, iim. hoDwood@exxonmobil. com

3Multimedia Design Studio, 2 New Road, St Ives, Cambs, PE27 5BG, UK, Tel: +44 1480 494515, Fax: +44 1480 460841, graham. spinks@mdsl. demon. co. uk, anne. rennie@multimd. demon. co. uk

4Institute of Research and Design for Automation, Calea Floreasca 16, Bucharest 72321,

Romania, Tel: +40 21 2302293, Fax: +40 21 2307063, sfara@ipa. ro

5KWI Architects Engineers Consultants, Burggasse 116, A-1070, Vienna, Austria,

Tel: +43 1 52520 200, Fax: +43 1 52520 266, ka@kwi. at

6EUFORES Brussels Office, c/o European Parliament, ASP 13G242, Rue Wierz, 60, B — 1047, Brussels, Tel: +32 2 284 6422, Fax: +32 2 284 9921, smantell@eufores. org 7CIRCE, CPS — Marla de Luna 3, E-50015, Zaragoza, Spain, Tel.:+34 976 761863,

Fax: +34 976 732078, sabina@posta. unizar. es

8Atlantis Consulting SA, 51 Polytechniou str, Zip 546, 25 Thessaloniki, Greece, Tel: +30 31 524 854, Fax: +30 31 552 265, damvakeraki@atlantisresearch. gr

“EnergyTraining4Europe — a toolbox of money saving ideas on renewable energy and energy efficiency” (TREN-LdV) is a two and a half years running project (November 2002 — April 2005). It is funded by the European Commission Leonardo da Vinci programme, being developed by IMechE (UK) — co-coordinator and MDSL (UK), NaRe (Romania), IPA SA (Romania), KWI (Austria), EUFORES (Luxembourg), CIRCE (Spain), ATLANTIS SA (Greece).

The project aims to create a package of interactive training and guidance material that will help managers and engineers in SMEs and Local Authorities to develop an energy management plan for the buildings for which they are responsible. The plan will facilitate compliance with EU legislation on energy-related environmental issues and will identify opportunities for business improvement through innovation.

The key feature of the project is that it is based on a demand led training approach. Users will be guided quickly to find the information they need at the time when they need it.

The package will include:

■ Summaries of EU and Romanian legislation relevant to energy users in buildings;

■ Links to relevant national legislation and to sources of funding for projects improvement;

■ A diagnosis tool which will enable the manager or engineer to quickly identify the most important legislative issues, energy saving opportunities and potential RES supply;

■ Detailed advice and training related to each of the issues and opportunities identified, including: assessment of compliance with legislation and best practice; methodologies for exploring opportunities for improvement; support in
the specification of RES equipment, systems and services; support in the specification and procurement of energy efficient products and services.

■ A set of case studies illustrating the potential improvements.

■ User’s support through easy step-by-step instructions and website feedback forms (FAQs, technical help desk and tutor support);

■ Mechanisms for internal and external evaluation aimed at permanent improvement and updating.

All the materials will be designed to be useful to managers and engineers in SMEs and LAs in both the EU, and NAS. To support the material there will be an electronic discussion board.

The material will be available in the following media: via Internet, on CD-ROM, as a handbook.

Solar artwork at the Trajan’s Markets: Secrets of the Sun: Millennial Meditations and New Light on Rome 2000 by Erskine P

The idea of combining art, history, science and technology to educate people on solar energy started to emerge within ISES ITALIA in 1992 and became a program for schoolchildren in the year 2000.

1.1 SOS — Secrets of the Sun — Millennial Meditations

During the preparatory work promoted by ISES for UNCED (U. N. Conference on Energy and Development), on March 21, 1992 — shortly before the Earth Summit in Rio and on the date of the spring solstice — Erskine’s solar art exhibition, "SOS — Secrets of the Sun — Millennial Meditations" opened at Trajan’s Markets in Rome: a unique event in a unique venue (Silvi, 1992).

The exhibition was organized through the joint efforts of the Italian Section of ISES, the artist, the City of Rome’s Culture Department, the Archaeological Superintendence, the City of Rome, with a $300,000 grant from the Frederick R. Weisman Art Foundation.

In the prestigious setting of Trajan’s Markets, one of the most spectacular architectural complexes in the heart of Imperial Rome, still standing above the ancient Roman forum after two thousand years, Erskine installed a computer-driven outdoor heliostat, four mirrors to reflect the white Sunlight on prismatic devices projecting the play of coloured spectrum light into a series of darkened rooms. The colours of the solar spectrum, projected on the ancient walls, marble fragments and other creations by Erskine produced an impressive symbiosis of art, history, science, technology, architecture, and archaeology.

Fig. 1 — The heliostat in the »SOS-Secrets of the Sun’1 exhibition installed at the centre of Trajan’s Markets in Rome, 1992, powered by photovoltaic modules visible in the foreground

The exhibition’s symbolic messages evoked not only the relationships existing between the sun and life on earth, between the beauties of nature and the

environmental threats caused by humans, but also those between the sun and the civilizations that preceded ours, as dramatically represented by the vestiges of Trajan’s Markets, and the civilizations we could build by

coming to a new understanding of the connections between human culture, scientific and technological progress, and the biosphere we inhabit.

Before this event, the Italian Section had always focused essentially on the technical and scientific aspects of solar energy. With the efforts put into staging the "SOS — Secrets of the Sun," the Section intended to underline the importance it attributed to the cultural factors that, in an era of great technological progress, might constitute a far more difficult obstacle on the path to a solar future. The huge heliostat and the other technologically sophisticated solar systems that Erskine was allowed to install in the ancient edifice of Trajan’s Markets were seen as a wake-up call to meditate on the great cultural challenges we would meet in attempting to achieve widespread use of solar technologies.

The installation of the high-tech heliostat and other devices on the archaeological remains of the Trajan’s Markets was possible at the end of a labyrinthine course and a controversial authorization process for the installations. From one side the authorities of the monument were concerned for the impact of the installation on the monument itself. On the other side the proposed solar art exhibition at the Trajan’s Markets was seen as a powerful cultural means to call people’s attention to solar energy. The proposal came when world concerns about the environment were highlighted in the international agenda with the organization of the Rio Earth Summit.

Aesthetics and art were only one part of Erskine’s work. By means of Sunlight, text, and sound, Secrets of the Sun attempted to address such diverse issues as: the interaction of the Sun with the Earth, solar energy radiation spectrum and its interaction with the architecture of the Trajan’s Markets, advanced solar technologies, human colour vision, global warming, ozone depletion, urban acid deposition, mass species extinction, pollution and noise from car traffic, preservation of cultural heritage and more.

Final Remarks

The German version of all problems we developed in this project, including extensive explanations, and their solutions can be downloaded at the following internet address: http://www. math-edu. de under the topic ‘Anwendungen’.

The collection of worked out problems should finally be edited as a special text book for mathematics school education. For this purpose, the acceptance and supporting promotion of experts as well as politicians and educators is very important.

References

[1] KMK-Beschluss vom 17.10.1980. Umwelt und Unterricht. In: Informationen zur politischen Bildung 219, 2. Quartal 1988, 39.

[2] National Curriculum Council. 1989. Mathematics Non-Statutory Guidance. York: National Curriculum Council.

[3] Hudson, Brian. 1995. Environmental issues in the secondary mathematics classroom. In: Zentralblatt fur Didaktik der Mathematik 27, 95/1, 13-18.

[4] FUhrer, L. 1997. Padagogik des Mathematikunterrichts. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg.

[5] Blum, W.; Torner, G. 1983. Didaktik der Analysis. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

[6] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Moglichkeiten zur Integration des Themas Regenerative Energien in einen fachubergreifenden Mathematikunterricht. In: 12. Internationales Sonnenforum, July 05-07, 2000, Freiburg. Munchen: Solar Promotion GmbH.

[7] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. 2000. Beispiele zur Einbindung des Themas

„Regenerative Energien" in einen fachubergreifenden Mathematikunterricht. Istron — Tagung „Mathematik und Realitat" in Hamburg, November 02-04, 2000.

[8] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. 2000. Moglichkeiten zur Integration des Themas Regenerative Energien in einen fachubergreifenden Mathematikunterricht. Soltec — Solar Didactica in Hameln, October 28, 2000.

[9] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. 2001. Aufgaben fur einen fachubergreifenden

Mathematikunterricht zum Thema Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Problems for Applied School Mathematics Concerning the Topic of Photovoltaic Solar Energy. In: OTTI Energie-Kolleg (ed.). 16. Symposium Photovoltaische Solarenergie, March 14­16, 2001 in Kloster Banz, Staffelstein. Regensburg: Ostbayerisches Technologie — Transfer-Instuitut (OTTI), 114-118, English Abstract 119.

[10] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Rationelle Energienutzung und Regenerative

Energien als Thema in einem fachubergreifenden Mathematikunterricht. To appear in: Schriftenreihe der ISTRON-Gruppe. Materialien fur einen realitatsbezogenen Mathematikunterricht.

[11] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Angewandte Mathematik zum Thema der

erneuerbaren Energien. Landesinstitut Mecklenburg-Vorpommern fur Schule und Ausbildung L. I.S. A., Padagogisches Regionalinstitut Neubrandenburg, May 17, 2001.

[12] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Solarenergie im Mathematikunterricht — Didaktische Konzeption und Aufgabenbeispiele. 3. Solar Didactica, Solar-Energy World Exhibition 2001, Patron: The Minister for Education and Research E. Bulmahn, in Berlin, June 10, 2001.

[13] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Future Energy Issues in the Secondary Mathematics Classroom. Proceedings of the 5th Panhellenic Conference with International Participation on Didactics of Mathematics and Informatics in Education. October 12­14, 2001 in Thessaloniki, Greece.

[14] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Elecrtric Vehicles as a Topic for Applied School Mathematics, EVS 18, The 18th International Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition EVS 18 — The World’s Largest Event for Electric Vehicles — Proceedings. October 20-24, 2001 in Berlin, Germany.

[15] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Autofahren — Mit Mathematik effizient in die Zukunft. Istron-Tagung „Mathematik und Realitat" in Karlsruhe, November 08-10, 2001.

[16] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Mit Mathematik in eine sonnige Zukunft — Solardidaktik fur einen fachubergreifenden Mathematikunterricht. 5th Solar Didactica, Solar-Energy World Exhibition 2002, in Berlin, June 14, 2002.

[17] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Biomass for Future Energy as a Topic in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms. 12th European Conference on Biomass, 17-21 June Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2002.

[18] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Promoting Renewable Energy Issues in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms. In: A. A.M. Sayigh (ed.). Renewable Energy. Renewables: World’s Best Energy Option. Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress VII. 29 June — 5 July 2002 in Cologne, Germany. Amsterdam: Pergamon. Elsevier Science Ltd. ISBN: 0-08-044079-7.

[19] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Wind Energy in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms. Proceedings of the 1st World Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition. 04 — 08 July 2002 in Berlin, Germany.

[20] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Biomasse — Mit Mathematik warm durch den Winter. Istron-Tagung „Mathematik und Realitat" in Freiburg, Oktober 10-12, 2002.

[21] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Integration der Themen „rationelle Energienutzung" und „regenerative Energien" in einen fachubergreifenden Mathematikunterricht. Begrundung — Didaktisches Konzept — Aufgabensammlung. In: Hans-Wolfgang Henn (Hrsg.). Beitrage zum Mathematikunterricht 2003. Hildesheim, Berlin: Franzbecker, 145-148. ISBN: 3-88120-354-0.

[22] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Windenergie im Mathematikunterricht. Istron-Tagung „Mathematik und Realitat" in Magdeburg, November 06-08, 2003.

[23] Brinkmann, A. & Brinkmann, K. Mit Mathematik warm durch den Winter. Istron — Tagung „Mathematik und Realitat" in Magdeburg, November 06-08, 2003.

[24] Boer, H. Konzentrierende Kollektorsysteme. MUED-Schriftenreihe Unterrichts — projekte. ISBN: 3-930197-31-6.

Integrating Training and Research

Efficient training on sustainable energy must be orientated on developing the knowledge and the skills of the future researchers, producers, market actors and consumers. Therefore, the training programs are product-orientated and are targeting the development of entrepreneurial skills of the beneficiaries. For fulfilling these educational objectives in a domain that has a fast dynamics not only in innovation but also at invention level, research is necessary to be a permanent support.

The training line developed in the university covers the undergraduate level, M. Sc and doctoral activities. Modules on RES and Energy Management are implemented in the second cycle of the engineering curricula in the Faculties of Technological Engineering, Mechanics and Material Science and a five years undergraduate full course is developed (in the Faculty of Material Sciences and Engineering) on Environment Engineering. Many students in the final years are working for their Diploma Work in research projects on sustainable energy, either in the Transilvania University or in European universities in students’ exchange programs (Socrates/Erasmus, Leonardo, [6]) in Denmark (Horsens), Germany (FH Aachen), the Netherlands (TU Delft, Utrecht), Spain (Zaragoza and Valencia), Greece (TEI Crete, Athens), etc.

Fig. 3 The training line provided by the Centre for Sustainable Development

A three semester M. Sc. Course, Design and Management of the Renewable Energy Systems is running in English, starting with 2003 and the seven course curricula is delivered by teaching staff from the Transilvania University and from abroad. Based on the collaboration with the European partners who have similar courses, the curriculum is improved and adapted to the needs and trends identified by the entire consortium. The success of this course represents a model, followed by another proposal for a M. Sc. course, eLab, who involves modules on Sustainable (Bio)Chemical Processes.

The formal training at academic level is not able to provide in-time answers to all the training needs identified: the segment before the university (mainly the high school level)
consist of the members of the future society who will live and act according to the principles and musts of the sustainable development and starting to train them as early as possible is part of o sustainable education strategy. In order to have training providers at this level, an in-service training program was promoted in the Center and submitted for evaluation in the frame of the Comenius/Socrates programme; the SEE — COMTOOL project (SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION — A COMPLEX TRAINING TOOL), addresses to teachers of physics, chemistry, technology, etc. at the pre-university level, who are willing to include modules/chapters or a complete curricula in their class activity.

Fig. 4 The offer for lifelong learning in the informal training line

10

The other segments of the informal training is related to the members of the society seeking for knowledge and information on RES for purposes related to the insertion in the working market and development of new economical units in order to fill a gap, sensed between the offer and demand in this domain. Adults education in the paradigm of lifelong learning covers also projects for rising the awareness of population and for training key factors and decision makers able to shape the future in full knowledge of the demands and possibilities. Two Leonardo da Vinci projects are granted and support this orientation: a pilot project (RES&EM ICT Tools) aiming to develop the adults learning training frame (including the training tools and the experimental basis) and a teaching staff mobility project (ECO-RES&EM) designed to offer the possibility of gaining European experience in training and to harmonize, at transnational level, the content of the delivered modules, [7]. These projects are meant to provide complex information and knowledge on different levels of complexity, orientated for different groups of interest, on the most important chapters identified, related to the renewable energy systems for a better environment management, [8, 9], Fig. 4.

The human resources in the Centre for Sustainable Development involving professors — head of the laboratories — and younger members are able to provide training and education at a good level because they continuously integrate the didactic activity with the research and the groups are including undergraduate, M. Sc. and Ph. D. students.

Seven Ph. D. projects are running at the moment in the Centre, in complementary themes involving mechanical engineers, physicists and chemists. Research for products’ development are carried out from the materials synthesis, characterization and production till the mechanical details of the devices:

One group is working on projects related to the development of nanostructurated layers for renewable energy systems: for solid state PV cells, for developing photo-catalysts for hydrogen production, for the organic pollutants degradation and for developing an automatic spray deposition installation for thin layers.

Another group is working on investigating the fundamentals and technology for developing composites based on recycled rubber and plastics.

Finally, the last group is investigating mechanical systems applied in the development and optimization of the renewable energy systems: tracking systems for solar sensors (pyranometers) and for solar panels (collectors and photovoltaic cells).

The projects are financed through national grants or are part of research agreements between the Centre and European bodies (universities, companies).

The Centre starts to build, this year a location where most of the laboratories will be gathered. The building, Fig. 5, designed respecting the principles of passive solar design in terms of architecture and building materials will include monitoring systems of the climatic parameters (solar energy, wind, temperature, humidity) and — on the roofs — will be provided with state-of art RES (silicon PVs and solar collectors) for technological studies.

Fig. 5 The Solar House

The new location of the Centre for Sustainable Development

ESES Master Theses

At the time of writing, the latest year’s theses are not yet presented, defended, or graded (this will happen in June and in September). The first four years’ theses (graded from A to E) are 27, and as seen from this list of titles, they cover many different areas of renewable energy:

1. A systematic analysis of a large grid-connected amorphous double-junction photovoltaic system in high latitude application.

2. A heat use concept for the EMA-collector in combination with a heat pump and a borehole store.

3. Evaluation of an EPS-MaReCo.

4. Analysis of three-pipe-system for combined heating and cooling distribution.

5. Energy conscious retrofit of single family houses: Comparison of Sweden and Hungary.

6. Market and literature study on technologies for seasonal storage of solar energy regarding small-scale applications, with focus on thermo chemical storage.

7. Comparison of batteries with different charge control method.

8. Development of a cost effective solar cooker.

9. Generation of electricity by using thermo-photovoltaic devices with photonic techniques and combination of selective edge filter.

10. Cost analysis on solar powered radio base station with cooling demands.

11. Optical and thermal performances of load adapted solar collectors: Optical modelling of two load adapted collectors.

12. Optical and thermal performance of load adapted solar collectors: Outdoor performance tests and evaluation.

13. Evaluation and simulation of a combined system based on heat pump, solar collectors.

14. Simulation of a solar absorption cooling system for hot climate.

15. Optimisation with industry of a solar heating system using simulations.

16. Experimenting with the sun. Experiments for the exhibition “Nedkalla Solkraften” at the Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm

17. Tibetan Photovoltaic Village System

18. Investigation of Hogskolans 1.44/1.8 kW PV-system

19. Designing a Curriculum for a Course on Renewable Energy suitable for the Faculty of Engineering the University of Surabaya, Indonesia

20. Charging Station design for electric transportation

21. Solar Pellet Combisystems: a feasibility study in Toscana, Italy

22. Heat Resistance between PV Cells and Thermal Absorber in a Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System

23. Use of Solar Energy in Low Cost Housing in De Aar, South Africa

24. Characterization of Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells using Different Methods

25. Evaluation of Properties and Performance of Low — cost Prototype Solar Collector

26. The Solar Lantern and battery Options Photovoltaic Technologies

27. Solar cooling

Our original intention was that all ESES students should do their thesis work within one of the current research projects at SERC. As it has turned out, at the most half of the students have done that. Some have had strong ideas about something else that they wanted to do (and managed to convince the ESES examiner that it would be an acceptable choice). Some have opted for a task that was offered by a SERC researcher but not part of a current project. Some have done their thesis work at another institution, even abroad, or at a company.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank many colleagues at SERC who participate in ESES activities with administration, lecturing, lab instruction, study tour guiding, and thesis supervising — in all, making the ESES year possible: Per Berg, Anneli Carlqvist, Frank Fiedler, Jill Gertzen, Annette Henning, Tara Kandpal, Klaus Lorenz, Svante Nordlander, Bengt Perers, Tomas Persson, and Mats Ronnelid.

References

Broman, L. (2003); ESES, a European master’s Program in Solar Energy Engineering. Proc. ISES Solar Worls Congress, Goteborg, Swden, paper PE4 (4pp).

Broman, L., Blum, K., Garofoli, V., Kristoferson, L., Kusoffsky, U., and Hidemark, B. (1998). Creating a European Solar Engineering School. In Anil Misra, Ed., Renewable Energy Education — Current Scenario and Future Projections, pp 42-47. Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi.

Broman, L., Duffie, J. A., and Lindberg, E. (1991); A Concentrated Course in Solar ThermalProcessEngineering. Proc. ISES Solar World Congree, Denver, USA, pp 3815­3820.

Duffie, J. A. and Beckman, W. A. (1991). Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Garg, H. P. and Kandpal, T. C. (1999). LaboratoryManualon Solar ThermalExperiments. Narosa, New Delhi.

Kandpal, T. C. and Garg, H. P. (2003). Financial Evaluation ofRenewable Energy Technologies. Macmillan, New Delhi.

Markvart, T., Ed. (1996). SolarElectricity. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

EU White Paper on RES (1997). Energyforthe Future: Renewable Sources ofEnergy — White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan <http://europa. eu. int/en/comm/dg17/599fi_en. htm

The Sun Emulator

Because the Sun Emulator uses seven rings to simulate the 21st day of all twelve months, the heliodon is a 3-D model of the sun paths. At an instant, one can tell that the sun comes only from a part of the sky often called the solar window. It is also easy to see which region of the sky the sun shines from during the overheated period, which region of the sky in the underheated, and equally important which region of the sky the sun never shines from. It is also easy to show how these regions of the sky move up and down with changes in latitude. It is most important to understand that any specific sun angles are not very meaningful and potentially misleading. For example, June 21 at 12 noon is not representative of the summer condition although frequently used in graphical approaches to solar design. Rather, it is very important to understand that the sun must be rejected whenever it comes from the summer region of the sky. The size of this region is a function of climate. Similarly, the sun angle of Dec. 21, 12 noon is not especially meaningful because we want to collect the sun when it is coming from the winter region of the sky.

By rotating the cradle holding the rings, it is easy to understand how to design a solar responsive building anywhere from the equator to the poles. It is instantly obvious, for example, that at the equator, north and south windows receive equal amounts of sun over a year. Thus the Sun Emulator is a powerful teaching tool even before its lights are turned on.

The Sun Emulator clearly shows not only the daily symmetry of the sun’s travels across the sky but also the annual symmetry where the sun path for Nov. 21 is the same as Jan. 21 and May 21 is the same as July 21, etc. It is for this reason that only 7 rings (sun paths) are needed to simulate the 12 months. This heliodon also shows how for six months of the year the sun shines into north windows at all latitudes even if it is only for brief times and at very glancing angles. Most people, including many "solar designers”, erroneously believe that the sun never shines into north windows or that it only occurs for a few days. For hot climates this fact is of great importance. It is also easy to understand how the length of day is a function of not only time of year but also latitude, except of course, for the two days each year called the equinoxes. All this can be understood within minutes by any person, of any age, and any educational level.

Unlike graphical, verbal, or mathematical explanations, learning from a "conceptually clear” heliodon is easy, quick, leaves a profound understanding, and will be retained far better because it does not depend on rote memory but on a god’s-eye — view experience of the relationships of a building with its constantly changing solar environment.

Renewable Energy Policy in Poland

Malgorzata Wolna, Polish Solar Energy Society ISES

Introduction

Black and brown coal have been used as main energy raw materials in Poland for centuries, and even today are the basic source of energy used for both industrial and domestic purposes. However fossil fuels create environmental problems such as air pollution by increasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases concentration in the earth atmosphere causing, in consequence, climate changes due to global warming. Systems utilising renewable energy sources (RES) are often not economical. The prices of conventional energy carriers are lower than those of RES. Financial mechanisms addressed directly to the independent producers of energy from RES are insufficient. These and a number of other barriers hinder the development of RES sector.

However the environmental situation indicates that changes in the structure of energy supplies in Poland are urgently needed and new solutions and applications are being considered.

Goals of Poland’s renewable energy policy

The EU’s White Paper [1] presents the strategy and action plan in the field of RES, which requires all members states to take steps towards the solution of energy problems. The European Union’s target is to increase the share of RES from 6% to 12% of gross energy consumption by 2010. Another document — EU’s Renewable Electricity Directive 2001/77/EC [2] gives a framework for increasing the share of green electricity from 14% to 22% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The forecasts also include ten European applicant countries that will in the nearest future become members of the European Union.

Poland has adopted a renewable energy strategy, whose goals, at present, are lower than the targets set by the European Union. The main objective is to increase the share of energy from renewable sources in primary energy balance to 7.5% in 2010 and to 14% in 2020 [3]. In the Accession Treaty [4] Poland set its national indicative target for the consumption electricity from RES in the total gross electricity consumption to amount to 7.5% by 2010.

Table 1. The share of green electricity generation in 10 candidate countries in 1999 and prospects in 2010 [5]

Candidate Country

The share of green electricity generation (%)

1999

2010

Czech Republic

3.8

8

Estonia

0.2

5.1

Cyprus

0.05

6

Latvia

42.4

49.3

Lithuania

3.3

7

Hungary

0.7

3.6

Malta

0

5

Poland

1.6

7.5

Slovenia

29.9

33.6

Slovak Republic

17.9

31

Table 1 presents the targets negotiated by ten associated candidate countries. It depicts the share of green electricity in the total gross electricity consumption predicted in 2010 and compares it with figures for 1999.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

To meet numerous challenges and solve problems in the RES sector, the Polish governmental policy is focused on several scopes of activity, including environmental, economic, financial, agricultural, educational and research policy (Fig. 1).

Educational and research policy

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology

Fig. 1 RES policy in different sectors in Poland

Experiences gained with the realisation ofthe. Summer Academy for Mediterranean Solar Architecture (SAMSA 2002)

Patricia Ferro* — ISES ITALIA, criferro@tiscali. it
Cesare Silvi* — ISES ITALIA — csilvi@jndra. com
Maryke van Staden* — International Solar Energy Society (ISES) — mvanstaden@ises. org
*ISES ITALIA, Via Tommaso Grossi 6, 00184 Rome, Italy
* InternationalSolarEnergySociety(ISES), Wiesentalstr50, 79115Freiburg, Germany

Introduction

Recognising the need for practical training in the field of integrating solar technologies in building design, using solar architecture strategies, Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) and energy efficiency (EE) concepts, the International Solar Energy Society (ISES) organised the first Summer Academy for Solar Architecture in Freiburg, Germany in 1997. This training event focused on sustainable building in temperate to cold climates (Northern and Central Europe). Subsequent events were organised in different parts of the world, providing training to professionals in the building industry, as well as to senior architecture and engineering students.

ISES together with ISES ITALIA (the Italian Section of ISES), adapted the Summer Academy concept for training in the Mediterranean region. They jointly realised the first Summer Academy for Mediterranean Solar Architecture (SAMSA) in Rome in the summer of 2002, togetherwith the University of Roma Tre.

This paper addresses the experiences gained with the realisation of the SAMSA 2002 in Italy, dealing with the Academy contents and organisational aspects. Regarding the contents, the paper will review the approach used in dealing with the general principles of solar architecture and the requirements of the Mediterranean cultures and climates (e. g. considering the ‘whole building’ approach, natural cooling and ventilation system, etc). On the organisational aspects it will provide an insight into the cooperation between experts and organisations, as a key factor for the success of the Academy (acquiring funding, selecting experts, regional marketing, etc).

In 2004 the range of Summer Academies continues, with three European events promoted by the ISES network. This will build on the SAMSA 2002 and other events, providing an inter-connected range of further education teaching events. It will assist the sharing of information and tools for implementing solar architecture and EE designs, using RETs. In this way the Academies support and expand the European network ofskilled solararchitecture professionals.

The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and should not be ascribed to ISES ITALIA.

New Light on Rome 2000

Eight years later, promoted by ISES ITALIA, New Light on Rome by Peter Erskine was held in Rome in the year 2000.

The exhibition was part of the ISES Millennium Solar Forum, a series of scientific and cultural events promoted by ISES to mark, at the beginning of a new Millennium, the importance of solar energy, in particular:

• To illustrate that the sun has always been a source of energy, creativity and inspiration;

• To make use of the high potential inherent in artistic work for promoting solar energy applications;

• To bring new cultural dimensions to the field of solar energy which is primarily dominated by the approaches in use by scientists, technologists and business people;

• To benefit solar energy technology applications with the vision of artists;

• To promote contemporary art and design, inspired by the sun and the latest scientific discoveries and technological developments in solar energy.

As in Secrets of the Sun, also in "New Light on Rome 2000," the medium used by Erskine was not paint, but the solar spectrum, which in this case, however, was not produced by active systems, such as those used for Secrets of the Sun, but by passive systems, that included laser-cut prisms to receive and to catch the sunlight at various openings of the monument (Ilsolea360gradi 2000).

In addition to the Trajan’s Market, New Light on Rome 2000 was exhibited at another four ancient monuments and historic buildings: Museo delle Mura di Porta San Sebastiano, Cappella Palatina della Casa dei Cavalieri di Rodi, Criptoportico Neroniano del Foro Romano e Palatino.

Fig. 2 — A view of Peter Erskine’s solar art exhibition "New Light on Rome,"at Trajan’s Markets in Rome, June2000

SOS — Secrets of the Sun and New Light on Rome 2000 enhanced even more the already spectacular ancient

architecture, by

transforming monuments, churches and historic buildings into magical rainbow chambers. Flat prisms, such as those installed by Erskine at the Trajan’s Markets,

perception of ancient monuments by projecting on them the

captured the Sun’s light at openings just as windowpanes of 2000 years ago might have. In addition they were conveying to people the message that active or passive solar systems can change profoundly the artistic solar spectrum, however without any harm. In the same way solar technologies can change the natural and built environments where we live and work with benefit to them, to our health, and to the quality of life. Rome’s car emissions, on the contrary, are not visible but they cause more damage to the monuments than the solar radiation.