Category Archives: SonSolar
To meet the targets set in the Development Strategy of Renewable Energy Sector envisaging that by the end of the decade 7.5 percent of energy generated in Poland will be derived from renewable sources, work is carried on and discussions are held to create important legislation: the RES act. Our main goal should be to create a RES market, which in our economic reality is far from simple. The strong coal and energy lobby, which represents large power plants, determines the conditions of operating in this sector. Thus it is a political necessity to find a way to reconcile differences and solve conflicts among all the interested parties.
To meet its official international obligations regarding the reduction of pollution caused by greenhouse gases emissions, Poland has to produce more renewable energy. This can be done through increasing the utilisation of environmentally clean energy from RES such as solar, biomass, wind energy, geothermal and hydropower. Such energy policies will not only contribute to the reduction of environmental pollution, but will also bring significant results, measured in financial benefits for the country and in better health of the citizens in the future.
White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan: Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy. COM (97) 599 (final) of 26th Nov. 1997.
Directive 2001/77/EC On the Promotion of Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources in the Internal Electricity Market. Official Journal of the European Communities 27.10.2001. L 283/33
Development Strategy of Renewable Energy Sector adopted by the Council of Ministries on 5th September 2000 and passed by the Parliament on 23rd August 2001. Parliament No 2215 (2000)
The treaty of Accession of Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic of 31st January 2003 No AA 2/03 (MD 171/6/02 REV 6)
Anna Oniszk-Poptawska. Dostosowanie polskiego prawa do prawa UE w zakresie wykorzystania odnawialnych zrodet energii. Gospodarka paliwami i energiq.
White Paper on European Transport Policy. COM (2001) 370 of 12th Sept. 2001. Directive 2002/91/EC of 16.12.2002. Energy Performance of Buildings.
Proposal for a Directive 96/61/EC of 23.10.2001. Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading.
Directive 2003/30/EC of 8.05.2003. The Promotion and Use of Biofuels in Transport.
Community Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection. 2001/C 37/03. Notes on Poland’s Energy Policy to 2020 (Ministry of Economy, approved by Council of Ministries on 22nd February 2000)
Sustainable Development Strategy for Poland to 2025 (Ministry of Environment. 2000)
The Energy Law (Council of Ministries.1997. Dz. U. 1997. No 54. p.348)
The Environmental Protection Act (Council of Ministries.2001. Dz. U. 01. No 62. p.627)
The RES Act (in preparation)
The Quota Obligation Ordinance of Purchasing RES Electricity (Ministry of Economy on 15th December 2000. Dz. U. 2000. No 122. p.1336)
The Amendments to the Quota Obligation Ordinance (Ministry of Economy. 2003. Project on 15th December 2000. Dz. U. No 104. p. 971 on 13th June 2003.)
IEA Statistics. Renewables Information 2003 Le Barometre EurObserv’er (Systemes Solaires) 2003.
Grzegorz Wisniewski. Zrodta energii odnawialnej w Polsce: stan obecny, zarys prawny oraz mozliwosci rynkowe. Konf. Min. of Environment. On 16th January 2004. (Promotion of the European Experience of Renewable Energy Sources Development and Climate Change Commitments in the New Member States and the Candidate Countries: A High Level Approach).
The demand for training is underestimated as is the profit of training programs for electrification projects. The following two examples demonstrate that successful energy projects with renewable energies require more knowledge and skills than common apprenticeship of local technicians and end users — realised in few hours of "learning during installation” — can provide. These examples also illustrate that the expenses for training courses in view of the existing risks constitute an effective investment.
Tables of contents
Seminars and road shows about grid coupled an off — grid application of PV
Basic principles and technical applications of PV, energy policy and energy markets, environmental impact and emissions, legal and financial conditions, support programs, social and socioeconomic factors and implications
Apprenticeship of technicians for PV (hybrid) energy plants, solar home systems, solar powered water pumps
Knowledge of operation of PV and its single components, irradiation — and location analyses, plant layout and systems engineering; practical exercises to measure the characteristics of systems and their components, maintenance, troubleshooting, safety issues, monitoring and technical resp. economical management for local technicians
Planning and implementation /operation of projects for rural
Training of specialised skills for effective project planning with emphasis on the integration of social aspects / strategies for implementation and organisation of O&M for long term utilisation of PV power plant of various dimensions / peculiarities of off-grid energy supply and deduced special tasks for O&M companies
Apprenticeship of end user
Understanding of basic technical operations, energy management, basic maintenance tasks, daily monitoring, didactical methods and various instructional designs to cover different levels of education
End user and
Chart 1: Training supply of Fraunhofer ISE 2003/2004.
In line with the Chinese Brightness Programme two employees of Fraunhofer ISE and Centre for Solar Energy — and Hydrogen-Research (ZSW) conducted a two weeks lasting training course for technical instructors of different provinces of China (Gabler et. al., 2003) in March 2003. Within the scope of the course both trainers realised, that the trainees already possessed of extensive theoretical knowledge, but practical application like installation, maintenance, fault analysis, and repairs were much than important for henceforth instructors. Thus half of the training course was used for practical exercises. It became additionally evident, that beside pure technical knowledge there was high demand for skills to manage institutional tasks like the creation of service standards, the development of energy service companies (Rural Electrification Service Company RESCO), the clearance of responsibilities and ownership structures. There was also a lack of approaches to handle basic problems like energy distribution, payment schemes, incentives for the usage of energy saving devices and system monitoring. The Brightness Programme defined the political and technical frame of the electrification project but economic tasks were not considered in-depth. Only few days of training about off-grid energy supply would have increased the awareness of the Chinese decision makers of the Brightness Programme anticipating many problems that occur now after the implementation. Instead there is need for amendment in various fields. For example the
PV training course in Beijing (March 2003)
systems operate without maintenance and payment schedules and user must to get used to varying fees for energy services. The implementation of payment schemes for off-grid energy supply is therefore much more time consuming and expensive, but absolutely necessary. Only with fees regularly and reliably collected it is possible that the PV systems are operated and maintained by private RESCOs. Due to the large number of plants, the patchy situation and conceptual gaps in the program devour great sums of money for which the Chinese government has as yet to pay for every year.
Experiences from South Africa with rural electrification by solar home systems demonstrate that PV (and other renewable energies) is in principle suitable for off-grid energy supply. However, several South African companies failed to accomplish many of their primary objectives. These projects often shipwrecked because of the disregard of the special circumstances in rural and remote areas. Thus the companies neither considered the inaccessible and scattered settlement structure nor did they take the social and cultural background of their possible customers into account. For instance „fee for service" paying schemes failed in some regions due to the distinctive perception of property. User sometimes sold their systems (though they were not the proprietor) or „modified" their SHS technically without authorisation of the real owner. Because of insufficient knowledge about the customers, the companies promoted systems with undersized batteries and power output that didn’t cover the energy demand of the users. Moreover the concessionaire companies underestimated the requirements for personnel and neglected reliable selection methods and training programs. There was a lack of competent personnel on site so users did not know their SHS well and the condition of the solar power systems constantly degraded due to inappropriate handling. The situation changed dramatically as displeased customers refused to pay fees or instalments any longer. The financial losses of the operating companies were not published but one can easily calculate if in 1000 households the batteries became prematurely defective due to overloading and deep discharge. The replacement cost of 100,000 Euro (100 Euro per household) could have been deferred if the project managers had been schooled to hold appropriate user training courses (costing around 10,000 Euro, or 10 Euro per household).
Other expensive experiences can be avoided if decision maker and project designer learn how to survey and integrate non technical factors of rural electrification into their programs.
The study program is divided into two parts. The basic study is over three semester, and the main study over five. Two semesters make up one academic year. Fig. 3 shows the structure of the study program.
— w CD =3
Fig. 3: Study structure
In the basic study period mathematical-scientific and engineering basics are taught. In addition short introductions to renewable energy engineering and our ecosystem are given.
The main study period consists of three theoretical semesters and two semester of gaining experience in practical work. In the second of these semesters, students have to write their diploma theses.
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the
curriculum of basic and main study respectively.
Fig. 2: Three-level model of study contents
The third level covers the peripherals of power generation or safety engineering.
safety operation energy law economics languages
energy management facility management data processing
sources storages sinks transport conversion control
SHAPE * MERGEFORMAT
Fig.4: Curriculum of the basic study
Fig.5: Curriculum of the main study
Regarding the positive experiences and the valuable increase in knowledge and competences students may get while working on a Facharbeit it is desirable to reduce the occurring problems. Especially concerning future energy issues it would be good to support students’ works in this field. Students show great interest in these topics, but the difficulties and problems they would meet, often keep them away from doing such a work.
Out of our experiences we students have a list of wishes to get the help we need for writing our Facharbeit.
First we need help by the search of an adequate topic out of the field of renewable energies to work on. Sometimes students have to realise when working on their chosen topic, that they cannot manage their work, as they have not got the necessary knowledge basis or because the theme is so extensive that it cannot be dealt with in time.
Furthermore we need help to get the literature which is necessary to write our Facharbeit. It would be wonderful if there would be an internet portal with a list of possible topics for a Facharbeit, as well as a list of literature to each topic.
There should also exist an extensive reliable data base with key search possibility for the field of future energies, but restricted on sources that are understandable for us as students. All this literature should be available in a short time and without great costs. The best would probably be, if students could order the literature by internet, perhaps as pdf — files.
The very best would be if students could have the chance to speak with an expert about their work in order to get actual and reliable information, but also to discuss about own ideas. I myself have the luck that my father knows a lot about future energy because he himself works in this area, and that I can use his contacts to other experts. But there are only very few students who have an expert on the side to help. There are no contact lines to experts and so the students don’t know whom to ask.
Also the teachers who guide such a Facharbeit and want to inform themselves in order to give their students better help, do not know whom to address. There should exist contact addresses for schools, preferably at universities as here the most independent experts can be found.
So we hope that we can get more help to write such a work in the future, to have the possibility to ask experts and to get all information which could be useful. This would be a great help for both students and teacher. If this would be realized for topics out of the area of future energies, it would increase young peoples’ knowledge in this field, the consciousness of problems the human society is having in near future, but also the willingness to deal with it.
A student applies to EUREC Agency responsible for the admissions procedure. His application is reviewed by the academic partners of the core university and the specialisation university the student has chosen. Our sample student has chosen to do his core at Oldenburg in English and to study PV at Newcastle at the University of Northumbria. Oldenburg university then registers the student for the whole course. Classes start in October for the core where the student learns about the different RET’s in a general but technical manner. He does laboratory work and passes a series of exams. In January, the student moves on to the specialisation university in Newcastle in the UK. Here, he will only focus on PV in order to get as deep an understanding as possible in the four months period. Guest lecturers add latest research findings or illustrate practical applications of the technology, and the student visits installations, and experiments with the technology in laboratories.
As he has decided to focus on PV systems, he finds a placement with a company like “XXX” with the help of the course director at Northumbria University. During his four months company placement, he works on a project assessing the performance of a new manufacturing techniques that delivers thinner crystalline silicon wafers. He then writes a report on his project work and prepares a presentation that he holds in September in Brussels in front of an academic panel composed of the course directors. His fellow students as well as interested industry or research representatives assist at this event. He gets graded on both project report and presentation. By November, he receives his final degree issued by Oldenburg University and is now fit for employment.
Conforming to the tendency towards EU-wide uniformity and comparability of university diplomas, the European Master in Renewable Energies leads to a final degree mutually recognised by the different countries’ universities. The labelling is the equivalent of “European MSc in Renewable Energy” in the language of the core university (i. e. the University of Zaragoza issues a “Master Europeo en Energias Renovables”). The degree is issued by the core university according to its respective national standards. It has been decided that students only register with the core University, which then becomes responsible for awarding the degree. This is to ensure that the degree will be recognized universally as a Masters. The consequence of this is that the awarding institution must recognize the credits of the other participating Universities.
CHP plants in residential buildings: Environmental potential and economic feasibility when combined with thermal solar systems
Benoit Sicre, Andreas BUhring, Matthias Vetter
Fraunhofer-Institut fur Solare Energiesysteme ISE
Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 761/4588-5291, Fax: +49 (0) 761/4588-9000
The expected high fuel conversion factor of residential combined heat and power plants (rCHP) means that they present a more environmentally friendly option for heating and simultaneous electricity generation than separate systems with decentralised heat generation, e. g. with a gas-fuelled boiler, and electricity from central power stations.
As the investment costs for rCHP plants are still high, measures such as investment subsidies and/or higher tariffs for the exported electricity are needed to support the market introduction, as are the longest possible operating times. The consequence is that simultaneous investment in a thermal solar system becomes less attractive, as the heat that it provides shortens the operation time for the rCHP, so that the price paid for electric power increases. Provided that investments have been made in both a thermal solar system and a rCHP, an operation mode which is strongly determined by the electricity generation profile can dramatically reduce the heating energy yield from the solar system.
Within a joint project, Fraunhofer ISE has investigated the possible displacement mechanisms concerning thermal applications of solar energy, and has identified ways of financially supporting decentralised rCHP plants without hindering the thermal use of solar energy. The most important results of this work will be presented in this paper.
rCHP is an emerging technology with a high potential to provide energy efficiency and environmental benefits. The concurrent production of electricity and heat from a single fuel source can reduce primary energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The distributed generation nature of the technology also has the potential to increase electrical transmission efficiency. Since the plant can partly meet the power demand of the household [Sicre 2004], rCHP can alleviate utility peak demand problems and the need for grid reinforcement caused by the general rise in electricity demand.
At present, most rCHP plants operate with gas-fuelled combustion engines. Extensive research efforts are currently directed toward the development of fuel-cell heating systems. In addition, it is expected that Stirling engines and other systems will soon enter the market.
Business prospects for rCHP are very good since it is a mass market product. In the recent years, the market for home heating systems (especially retrofit of central heating systems or equipment) amounted to approx. 5 million units across Europe including
approx. 900,000 units in Germany. A large part of this amount is expected to be small — scale appliances with an electric power output below 10 kW. Moreover, all over Europe, energy distribution and supply companies have expressed interest in rCHP [Bruch et al. 2003], as a way to gain new customers or keep previously bound customers. Furthermore, rCHP can be used not only in new buildings but also in old buildings that have been retrofitted according to current building thermal standards.
As the investment costs for rCHP plants are still high, measures such as investment subsidies and/or higher tariffs for the exported electricity are needed to support the market introduction, as are the longest possible operating times. The consequence is that simultaneous investment in a thermal solar system becomes less attractive, as the heat that it provides shortens the operation time for the rCHP, so that the price paid for electricity increases. Measures to reduce the heating demand of buildings (thermal insulation, etc.) also become less interesting, as the decreased heating demand also reduces the rCHP operating time, so that the amortisation period is lengthened or amortisation may even become impossible. If investments have been made in both a thermal solar system and a rCHP, an operation mode which is determined by the electricity generation profile can throttle the performance of the solar system.
This complex has been addressed within a joint project that was initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment and co-ordinated by DLR [Krewitt et al. 2004]. Within this project, Fraunhofer ISE has investigated the possible displacement mechanisms concerning thermal applications of solar energy, and has identified ways of financially supporting decentralised CHP plants without hindering the thermal use of solar energy. The most important results of this work will be presented in this paper.
Simulations were used to calculate the yields of the rCHP plant and the solar collector, if present, for different types of rCHP (low-temperature fuel-cell heating in different power ranges, high-temperature fuel-cell heating, Stirling engines), with and without a solar collector, in different types of residential buildings (from the existing building stock, low — energy house, passive house). An approach was investigated, in which the bonus (which in Germany is currently 5.11 cents per exported kilowatt-hour) is reduced to zero during periods when the potential solar gains are high, but is then increased during other periods of the year to a value which means that on average, the system operators do not suffer a financial disadvantage.
Father Himalaya worked hard developing his new ideas and in a short time he was ready to show his new concept, directly at the World Fair in St. Louis.
As before, the explanations that follow result from a careful examination of the photographs below and from the educated guesses they allow. This is due to the fact that the writings of Father Himalaya available today, are even more scant about the Pyreheliophero than about the previous inventions. A particular reference should be made to the drawing, Fig.9(b), of Prof. Joao Gabriel da Silva [1,14].
The final configuration as it was assembled in St. Louis is shown in Figs.8,9. This solution integrates the two distinct motions necessary for the optics to track the sun, at each operating latitude, but with the required simplicity, as explained below.
It was 13 m tall. The total reflector area — a sector of a paraboloid — was 80m2 for a mean focal distance of 10 m. There were 6117 small (123mmx98mm) silvered glass mirrors painstakingly fixed to the underlying structure. The focal area was designed to be no larger than a circle with 150mm diameter. This resulted in a total geometric concentration factor of ~4500 X. Father Himalaya claimed a final concentration factor of 6117 X, hinting at a smaller focal spot, approximately with the same area as each individual mirror. In truth, as already noted, the conic entrance to the furnace (even though it is not an ideal optics  for that purpose, as we know today) would have been instrumental in recovering tracking inaccuracies and the resulting radiation spillage that might have occurred and even effectively enhance the final concentration.
Building of our solar cell related laboratory in the College was begun some years ago. One of the basic of our laboratory is a complete photovoltaic system. The system
contains 8 modules amorphous silicon based solar cells. The modules are type DS40 maden by Dunasolar . The modules are mounted on the roof of the College. Different sensors such as for temperature and radiation measurement are attached to the holder of the modules. The indoor module of the photovoltaic system was installed in the laboratory. We have a 220 V AC inverter, a battery charger and batteries. The electrical energy made by solar cells serves for local lighting and the energy source serves for a computer. We utilize the electrical energy made by solar cells an indoor green house. The green house is equipped with artifical lighting and its work is controlled with the help of temperature and moisure sensors which have been designed by our students. We have some models for applications, especially for architectural applications .
Fig. 5. Structure of an electrochemical solar cell
We are dealing in laboratory work not only with practical questions but theoretical and experimental questions, too. We are dealing, for example, with the optical and electrical parameters of amorpous silicon thin layers and solar cells. Our other research is related tothe electrochemical solar cells. One of the greatest problems in the solar cell application is the storage of electrical enegy. This problem can possiby be solved with the help of electrochemical solar cells, which are suitable to generate either electrical energy or hydrogen under special conditions . Hydrogen as energy carrier is very useful not only because the problem of storage of energy. Diminishing resources, more severe enviromental impacts and the ever-increasing demand for energy force us to reevaluate the structure of our energy supply system. Automobile and oil companies increasingly invest in hydrogen technology because it offers solutions to some of these concerns. This fascinating technology combines a sun energy supply with minimal impact on our natural resources. The technology of electrochemical solar cells have some technical and scientific problems. Such a problem is the solution of the photo corrosion, which occurs at the electrolyte / semiconductor interface . The photocorrosion ruins the semiconductor electrode during the working of the solar cell. The possible direction of this research is the search for novel materials of appropriate properties for electrochemical applications. One of the important groups of such semiconductor compounds is the chalcogenides such as cadmium-germanium-selenide. This junction is investigated with impedance analysis among to others to research the charge transfer and the electrical parameters. The other task of the usage of photoelectrochemical solar cell is the conversion of hydrogen into electrical energy. We have a fuel cell for the different experiments.
The students study this project with enthusiasm and they often choose it as their thesis theme. Number of four to eight theses are made yearly in the topic of solar cells. An often used theme of thesis is planning a complette photovoltaic system for a real family house or other buildings. The students often deal with the compatibility of the photovoltaic with other electronic systems in their works. For example, a latest work which was presented also at a conference was dealing with solar cells in lighting technics[ 10]. Many works deal with the technological questions of solar cells.
StR’ Dr. Astrid Brinkmann, Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann
EnviPro Environmental Process Engineering
Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann
Leckingser Str. 149, D-58640 Iserlohn / Germany
e-mail: astrid. brinkmann@math — edu. de
One of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion is the education of our children. For this purpose the compulsory school subject mathematics appears to be suitable. In order to promote renewable energy issues in mathematics classrooms, the authors have developed a special didactical concept to open this field for students, as well as for their teachers.
The aim of this paper is to present firstly an overview of our concept and secondly examples of problems to the special topic of solar thermal energy, developed on the basis of our concept.
Especially the young generation would be more conflicted with the environmental consequences of the extensive usage of fossil fuels. The education of our children should bring up consciousness for the resulting problems. This would be one of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion. Moreover, for our children it is indispensable to become familiar with renewable energies, because the decentralised character of this future kind of energy supply requires surely more personal effort of everyone.
In comparison to the parental education, the public schools give the possibility of a successful and especially easier controllable contribution to this theme. This can even be done advantageously for classroom teaching, as realistic and attractive contents have a particular motivating effect on students. In addition to that, a contribution to interdisciplinary teaching would be given, which is a significant educational method demanded by school curricula . Regarding the fact, that not all students participate at technical orientated lessons in a comparable proportion, it seems to be especially suited to treat this topic in mathematics education for this purpose.
In addition this would be quite profitable for mathematics education itself, as "the application of mathematics in contexts which have relevance and interest is an important means of developing students’ understanding and appreciation of the subject and of those contexts” [2, para F1.4]. Such contexts might be environmental issues, that are of general interest for everyone. Hudson  states that "it seems quite clear that the consideration of environmental issues is desirable, necessary and also very relevant to the motivation of effective learning in the mathematics classroom”. One of the most important environmental impacts is that of energy conversion systems.
However, although mathematics curricula demand application-oriented mathematics education, this not only in Germany [4, p. 110], there is a great lack of mathematical problems suitable for school lessons [5, p.251]. Especially there is a need of mathematical problems concerning environmental issues that are strongly connected with future energy issues. An added problem is, that the development of such mathematical problems affords the co-operation of experts in future energy matters with their specialist knowledge and mathematics educators with their pedagogical content knowledge. In such a cooperation the authors created several series of problems for the secondary mathematics classroom, based on a specially developed didactical concept.
PV training course in Freiburg for vocational teachers from Asia and Africa (April 2004)
If new technologies are promoted and implemented tasks for staff with related experiences are normally not absolutely unknown. To provide cost-effective training that focuses on direct learning results, it is therefore necessary to assess the existing knowledge and competencies of the trainees to compare actual with nominal skills (Bergmann, 1999). In this manner it is possible to tailor the training courses exactly to the needs of the companies and their staff avoiding unnecessary expenses for teaching skills the participants already possess. With concentration on specific target groups the training is assembled to existing experiences of the trainees. For example the technical education supply listed in chart 1 addresses well-trained and professionally experienced persons, who possess various competencies. For this reason every training course is conceptualised with specific instructional designs and learning objectives. Comprising the specific context of the companies and their staff it is additionally possible to identify hidden requirements and tasks like e. g. the handling of stakeholders with different cultural or educational background.
The training conception of Fraunhofer ISE consists of different instruction methods. To teach factual knowledge presentations and demonstrations are applied. To impart practical knowledge for concrete application group work sessions and technical exercises are provided. A high degree of interaction between trainer and trainees additionally guarantees the integration of the existing experiences of the attendants. Thus, for example the existing training design to teach local technicians of a French manufacturer of small wind power plants was evaluated and mutually advanced. An activity list ensured the integration of the improvements into the projects of the company.
The mentioned training programs cover a multitude of possible and necessary matters in the field of off-grid and grid coupled power supply with photovoltaics. These training courses make it possible to extend and to refresh the standard of knowledge and the gain of experience, which in most countries (this also applies to some European countries) is lagging between 5 up to 10 years behind the current state of the art. By this way, market development can be pushed systematically when erroneous trends can be prevented. The success of training programs for positive trends on photovoltaic markets depends on a series of general conditions:
— There is a considerable demand of the trainees for exchange of experiences that were made in projects and in the field. The conception of the training has to reflect this circumstance.
— The training has to be as practical as possible, including applied exercises on concrete components. In line with training courses in Germany visits of PV systems and companies are always part of the program. In this regard there are large potentials to gain access to markets in countries that demand for rural electrification projects. For instance, some companies provide gratuitously components for the practical units of the training courses.
— Experiences demonstrate that the results of the training courses are best when trainees are engaged in follow up activities. These activities should offer the chance to discuss personal experiences that trainees gained with the knowledge they acquired during the training courses. By follow-up seminars or the exchange of experiences in expert networks, existing know-how and skills will additionally be preserved.
— The experiences with the training courses also demonstrate that successful implementation of PV is possible and therefore especially rural electrification becomes an important market.
— In the future, the integration of social, technical, organisational and financial factors has to be accepted as an important part of electrification projects and programs. On this account, necessary funds and resources for adequate training courses and measures must be provided at all levels of the planning process.
Bergmann, B. (1999). Training fur den Arbeitsprozess. vdf Hochschulverlag AG an der ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Gabler, H., Bopp, G., Haugwitz, F., Muller, H., Haarpaitner, G., Scholle, A., Ma, S., Zou, X. (2003). Village Electrification through PV/Wind Hybrid Systems in the Chinese Brightness Program. In Proceedings 2nd European PV-Hybrid and Mini-Grid Conference, Kassel, Germany
International Energy Agency (IEA). (2003). PV for Rural Electrification in Developing
Countries: a guide to capacity building requirements. St. Ursen, Switzerland: IEA.
Vogt, G., Will, S., & Sauer, D. U. (2003). Training of company abilities to integrate social aspects in projects for rural electrification. In Proceedings der 2nd European PV — Hybrid and Mini-Grid Conference, Kassel, Germany.
Will, S., Vogt, G. (2003). Nichttechnische Aspekte der landlichen Elektrifizierung. In OTTI Energie — Kolleg (Ed.), Netzferne Stromversorgung mit Photovoltaik (pp. 585-597). Regensburg, Germany: Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e. V. (OTTI).
The SOPRA RE project is funded by the European Commission in Altener Program 4.1030/Z/01-086-2001. The SOLTRAIN project is funded by the European Commission under contract No.4.1030/Z/02-067/2002.