Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Dissemination activities related to solar cooling by means of the Project Best Results

J. Vicente11*, L. Bujedo1, C. de-Torre1 , P. Caballero1, C. Sanz1, S. Sanz1, A. Macia1.,

J, Rodriguez2

1CARTIF, Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo Parc 205, 47151 Boecillo, Spain
2Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research. Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bozen/Bolzano. Italy

* Corresponding Author, iulvic@,cartif. es

Abstract

The BEST RESULT project idea was born and developed by actors, involved in training and diffusion activities in the field of RES (Renewable Energy Sources) technologies, who experienced the strong need to raise the skills and know-how about RES among suppliers of house building and energy systems (installers, technicians, professionals, sellers, planners, etc.). Partners noticed the lack of knowledge amongst suppliers and the need to support both RES supply and demand in the sector of small scale RES applications in buildings. To solve this problem at a European level, the BEST RESULT partners are planning both common and local activities addressing RES suppliers, as basic and specialized training and updating events, workshops, visits to exchange know-how and working experiences, E-learning common platform. Many communication and information events will address the general public as part of the strategy to raise awareness of RES opportunities among European citizens. In this framework, CARTIF has carried out some tasks directed towards making diffusion of solar cooling and biomass: e-learning, training courses, local training workshops, technical visits, etc. Here we are going to focus on the solar cooling tasks giving first a general view of the project.

Keywords: solar cooling, renewable energy sources, buildings, training, diffusion.

1. Introduction

1.1. Objectives

As establish [1], the BEST RESULT project aims to develop a working strategy to extend the market of small scale RES applications in the building and energy sector through common and local activities addressing RES suppliers and consumers. All activities are aimed at opening new market opportunities and raising suppliers’ awareness and knowledge of RES applications by providing information and suggestions on how to improve their positioning inside the market. Information and communication activities targeting the general public or specific groups of consumers will simultaneously support the demand side. Strategies will be developed for a better internal and external communication tools among all the supply and demand actors of the building RES market. Good coordination and cooperation at European as well as at national and local level will permit to carry out interesting activities, bringing a common result in this European project fulfilment.

Qualitative Signs of Goal attainment

School girls were very enthusiastic participate and learn during the energy institute. Many expressed the desire to study science and engineering as they grow up and further their education. The level of curiosity among young women and girls was extremely high at the new technologies introduced in their community. The community was very thankful to the funders and extremely jubilant at the relieve the energy system and the water supply gave them, particularly the women. These sentiments were very evident during the dedication of the new Community Center and the Power systems.

Rural women from Banga Village, the project main site, have become more organized and participatory in socioeconomic activities. The rural community has become visibly more lively and exuberant. There appears to be an increased interest in the current affairs by rural women. There is a general believe among the women that live is better and that there is hope for an improvement in their economy.

CSP technologies in Iran: Now and Future

Solmaz Bakhshi Sarabi1*, Shirin Bahar1 and Meryam Daryabegy1

1 Iran Renewable energy organization (SUNA) Yadegar-E-Emam Highway, Dadman blvd, Shahrak Ghods P. O.BOX: 14665-1169 Tehran, Iran Corresponding Author, SolmazBakhshi@gmail. com

Abstract

The limited global fossil reserves make great problems for human beings in future. Iran dependency on the oil export and also increasing energy demands of the country will drastically affect national economic in near future. Diversifying energy resources is the best solution for this upcoming problem and renewable energy resources like wind, solar and geothermal are the best resources for providing national energy demand. On the other hand, enough solar irradiation in Iran makes great opportunities for producing electrical energy. In this respect, governmental decision makers make new incentives for utilizing renewable energy especially solar energy. For achieving this objective the first demonstration parabolic trough solar thermal power plant started for evaluating technical and financial issues in future scaled up projects. Moreover installing the first demonstrated power plant will unclose many environmental benefits, energy saving and other beneficiaries in different aspects. This paper is an overview of Iran solar irradiation atlas in comparison with the world’s irradiation which is a significant parameter in future planning for installing CSP technologies in Iran. On the other hand, a brief overview on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC) is presented for a rough cost comparison. This comparison in other countries with higher LEC shows that CSP technologies will compete with fossil fuels technologies in near future. Although there is a high priority for planning renewable energy projects considering critical environmental problems and limited fossil fuels, governmental financial aids are not enough to promote private investors on constructing solar power plants. In these white papers, some governmental projects which were planned for development of solar power systems in Iran are investigated. These projects have been executed now and the others will start in near future. Implementing these projects will probably drive some other solar thermal projects in near future while the technical experiment during these projects will support investors by technical information or providing low cost equipments for prospective solar power plants. Moreover, in near future Global Electricity Market will be a great enterprise to make developing countries such as Iran, extracting energy from their natural resources like sun and transmitting it to other countries. Besides, there are other international commitments such as Kyoto Protocol which makes developed country to control and decrease CO2 emissions and oblige them to invest on solar power plants in developing countries. The best answer to these reasons and future vision about Iran energy portfolio was CSP technologies which were discussed in this white paper as a brief overview to Iran solar energy now and future.

Keywords: CSP, solar irradiation atlas, Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC), Global Electricity Market, Kyoto Protocol

1. Introduction

Limited fossil fuel, environmental hazards and many other social and political problems motivate renewable technology utilization instead of fossil fuel in many countries. The most available energy resource is solar energy which is accessible everywhere. There is no limitation for converting solar energy into heat or power directly except one: the high installation cost in comparison with the conventional fossil fueled power generators. However limited resources and social cost of using fossil fuels will make the price of solar systems competitive with conventional power generators in near future. Thus planning for constructing infrastructures for producing solar system equipments in mass scale and simultaneously determining different incentives for investors are two main vital necessities. Although Iran is a great importer of fossil fuels but domestic energy demand will increase significantly during 10 years due to population growth. Unfortunately the whole fossil resources will consume for domestic demand which will decrease national income based on fossil fuel export. Thus, there is a high priority to utilize another source of energy in our portfolio and solar energy is an appropriate option.

The other important motivator for using solar technologies is international commitments such as Kyoto protocol which will limit CO2 production. Every country has a limited permit for producing greenhouse gases and installing renewable power plants will help every country to control these emissions.

Подпись: Fig. 1.The World Solar Energy Map showing the global solar resource available

Although there are many incentives for utilizing solar energy there is a great obstacle against CSP deployment. The high cost of installation makes these power plants economically unfeasible. Iran government determined some incentives for deploying CSP power plants like purchasing the electrical power of solar thermal power plants 6.5 times higher than the price of electrical power produced by conventional fossil fueled power plants. However because of the governmental subsides for fossil fuel consumed by power plants, the LEC price of electricity is very low in Iran. This price is about 0.01$/kWh for conventional power plants. So the CSP technologies are still unfeasible in Iran. Thus government plans to consider some other incentives like different loans and technical support to make the CSP technology feasible. These solar systems will be feasible with these incentives. On the other hand, Iran solar energy potential in comparison with other countries will decrease the LEC price of CSP power plants electricity significantly.

Figure 1 illustrates the global solar irradiance atlas and considering Iran location, solar energy potential is appropriate for using in different applications. Iran solar irradiation is about 2100 kWh/m2 annually [7].

Iran is located in the solar band so there is a significant solar energy resource and it is favorable for utilizing in solar power plants. The irradiance ranged from 4500 to 5750 Wh/m2 daily. Figure 2 illustrates Iran Solar Irradiation atlas [7].

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Fig. 2. Iran Daily Solar Irradiance [7] (Wh/m2 per day)

In Europe, the electricity cost of most renewable energies will cross below the cost offossil fuel driven plants between 2010 and 2020(MED-CSP, 2005). The same trend will also occur for Iran in near term. Thus Iranian policy makers are obliged to focus on renewable energy technologies in near future. Table 1 illustrates Iran renewable energy share predicted by DLR based on current economic potential (MED-CSP, 2005). Due to these expectations, many different solar projects was defined and implemented in Iran by government. These projects includes: the first pilot solar thermal power plant in Shiraz, Taleghan Test Facility Site and Yazd solar power plant. The main objective of implementing pilot solar power plant was assessing domestic potential for manufacturing parabolic through facilities in large scale. Some other activities such as commissioning a solar test facility site were planned for further assessment of CSP power plants. The Yazd Solar Power Plant is planned to implement as the first hybrid solar power plant with a fossil fueled power plant.

Solar thermal in buildings in the light of the new EC draft Directive The “ProSTO” project

Marco Calderoni, Riccardo Battisti

Ambiente Italia srl

marco. calderoni@ambienteitalia. itriccardo. battisti@ambienteitalia. it

Abstract

On January, 23rd 2008, the European Commission delivered the first draft of the Directive, where renewable heating was recognised to play a key role in the sustainable and secure energy supply in the EU.

In this scenario, the EU funded “ProSTO” project (“Best practice implementation of solar thermal obligations”), developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, has the ambitious but challenging goal of acting as a reference in this process, with a special focus on solar thermal in buildings.

The project partnership, which includes Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Romania, comprises research institutes and Local Authorities, which are the main stakeholders, having the task of developing optimised “Solar Thermal Obligations” (STOs). STOs are legal provisions obligating owners of buildings to install a solar thermal system on new/renovated buildings.

First of all, ProSTO will perform a base line assessment, in order to sum up the existing experiences on STOs, together with the needs of the participating local authorities.

A STO developer toolbox will be created for both the implementation by the local authorities and the dissemination at European level.

The core activity of the project will be carried out by 20 local governments of the Region of Lazio (IT), the Cities of Lisbon (PT), Murcia (SP), Stuttgart (DE) and Giurgiu (RO). They will create show cases of best practice implementations of STOs.

Educational activity at universities

1.1. Elaborating lab equipment at UNESCO Chair

The mission of the UNESCO Chair “Renewable energy and electrification of agriculture” is to help people to use renewable energy and environmental building technologies through education. The UNESCO Chair teaches students (who visits VIESH for practical work from universities),

postgraduate students, teachers to understand fundamentals and basic principles of solar engineering, GIS, how to design, install and maintain solar energy systems, and how to design and build efficient, sustainable homes. The UNESCO Chair offers training and retraining to different level specialists of adjacent specializations from around the world.

A number of lab kits were developed at the UNESCO Chair: for studying: parameters and characteristics of solar cells (Fig. 1), ray tracing in models of different concentrators (Fig. 2), operational principle and characteristics of solar module with demonstration load (Fig. 3), characteristics of model solar hydrogen-storage system with reversible fuel cell (Fig. 4), simulating of Sun’s path on the sky and shading of solar systems on models [1] (Fig. 5), characteristics of solar air thermal collector with different absorbing elements and glazing (Fig. 6, left), which includes PV/T receiver (Fig. 6, right).

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Fig. 1. Lab equipment for measuring characteristics of solar cells

 

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Fig. 2. Lab equipment for measuring characteristics of solar concentrators (with different concentrator configurations)

 

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Fig. 3. Lab set for study of solar module

 

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Fig.4. Model of the solar-hydrogen system (solar cells with reversible fuel cell)

 

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Fig. 5. Simulator of Sun’s path on the sky for shadow analysis of solar buildings with small models

 

The systematic development of lab equipment for teaching solar energy and scientific research skills has started at the Chair from 2004 [2, 3]. One of the main tasks of the Chair is integrating educational and research activity of students during the practical work with lab equipment and preparing a research project. VIESH has quite busy test field at the roof on a building which is very suitable for research and teaching activity. Unfortunately sometimes bad or just not sunny weather does allow carrying out proper experiments outdoors in framework of students’ time schedule.

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To avoid the dependence on weather described lab equipment was created during last several years. Lab equipment demonstrates principles behind solar energy technologies and is very suitable for using at universities, colleges, technical schools, and secondary schools. The equipment is useful for understanding solar energy, non-traditional and renewable energy, and also some aspects of physics, solid state physics and semiconductors, applied optics.

Fig..6. Lab set for study of solar thermal collector (left), PV/T receiving element of hybrid collector module (right)

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Also a special satellite receiver and software was elaborated for demonstrating how GIS systems can be used for solar engineering projects and for study at sciences’ lessons. Lab equipment «Receiving and processing of satellite images of the Earth in real time operation mode» is a new stage of using modern technology. Complex consists of satellite antenna, receiver of satellite signal, software of processing aerospace image of the Earth (Fig.7). Software of the receiving complex «Kosmos — M2» is able to determine the temperature of underlying surface at any point of the image obtained; to measure distance from one point to another with regards the Earth’s geometry; to determine surface area; selection of map layer and so on, to have real time images within interval 2-4 hours. With help of this complex it is possible to study climatic aspects of solar energy.

Fig.7. Satellite receiver of space images of the Earth Satellite with antenna at the VIESH roof

Подпись:
More than 200 students and pupils during the last three years visit our lab for excursion and for practical works and have understood the main principles of solar energy conversion (Fig.8).

Information sources and adopted investigative technique

At the same time, the total sample’s definition requires surveys and confirmation of the existent number of solar water heating systems. Therefore, a field research has taken place at the 3 cities, where specific questionnaires were used along with fabric and installation companies, commercial stores and customers. The statistic analysis is discussed later.

“Questionnaire A” was developed to raise the technical information, such as collector area sizing estimation, storage tank volume, collectors’ array and insertion in field, general conditions of operation and installation, and equipment maintenance and life cycle. Questions related to sociological and behavioral topics about the use of solar water heating generated “Questionnaire B”. With the creation of a website, dedicated to this project, it was possible to provide secrecy and appropriate ways to transfer and store the collected information.

To develop these questionnaires, important factors — as appropriate language and interest for all the social and economic classes — were included. The inquiry blocks used are illustrated in Figure 2.

The maintenance of this inquiry method in all questionnaires allows the comparative evaluation of the main problems detected. Through this strategy, economic, social, cultural, climatic and technological factors associated to solar water heating had become clearer and easier to understand.

QUESTIONNAIRE A

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QUESTIONNAIRE B

Figure 2 — Blocks of research surveyed in the questionnaires — users’ satisfaction, performance and technical aspects evaluation of the Brazilian solar water heating installations.

Solar autonomous cooling at the low energy building of the Technical colleges, Butzbach

One of the college buildings of the Technical Colleges at Butzbach is a low energy building, demon­strating various building construction technologies in order to reduce the thermal loads of the building. However, demand for active cooling and air-conditioning arises from high internal loads, caused through occupation and computer training courses. The building is used throughout the summer. At present, air-conditioning of the 335 m2 seminar area is performed with two supply/return air systems with heat recovery, providing the required hygienic air change rate. The supply air is moderately pre­cooled by means of ground heat exchangers. The additional solar cooling system, which is currently in the planning phase, will consist of 60 m2 vacuum tube collectors, providing driving heat for two ab­sorption chillers of 10 kW chilling capacity each (type: suninverse of the company Sonnenklima, Berlin). In this application, the collector fluid again is pure water, the collectors are supplied by Para- digma. A heat exchanger for pressure decoupling in the hot water circuit is not foreseen. In periods of high demand for air-conditioning and cooling, the concept allows for a separate operation of the chil­lers: while one operates at low chilled water temperatures for supply air cooling and dehumidification, the second chiller operates the chilled ceilings in the seminar rooms at higher chilled water tempera­tures. For this reason, 130 m2 of chilled ceilings will be installed.

Подпись: Figure 8 The low-energy building of the Technical Colleges Butzbach.

The whole system will be operated in a solar autonomous cooling mode, i. e., without additional driving heat for the chiller operation from the condensing boiler of the college building. The monito­ring of the system is done by ZfS Hilden. The installation of the system is foreseen in late summer 2008. Figure 8 presents a view at the low energy building, and figure 9 shows a sketch of the solar air­conditioning system.

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Supply air

(2 x 1250 m3/h)

 

Collector Buffer

vacuum tube 2 m3

60 m2

 

Chilled ceilings

(130 m3)

 

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Heat rejection

(wet, open)

 

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Figure 9 Simplified scheme of the solar air-conditioning system at the low-energy college building at Butzbach.
The configuration allows to operate the generators of the chillers in series: while the first one produces chilled
water for supply air dehumidification at low chilled water temperatures, the second one is thermally driven with
the return heat from the first one and produces chilled water at temperatures > 15°C for the chilled ceilings.
Consequently, the temperature difference between supply/return fluid in the solar circuit is increased.

References

[1] Hans-Martin Henning: Solar cooling and air-conditioning — thermodynamic analysis and overview about technical solutions. Proceedings of the EuroSun2006, June 27-30, 2006, Glasgow, Scotland

[2] Hans-Martin Henning, Edo Wiemken: Solar Cooling. Proceedings of the ISES Solar World Congress, September 18-21, 2007, Bejing, China

[3] Hans-Martin Henning (Editor): Solar-Assisted Air-Conditioning of Buildings — A Handbook for Planners. Published 2004 in the frame of Task 25 of the Heating & Cooling Programmes of the IEA. Revised edition 2007. Springer Wien New York, ISBN 978-3-211-73095-9

[4] Edo Wiemken: Solar cooling and air-conditioning — Programmes and projects for demonstration and technology transfer. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium Gleisdorf Solar, September 3-5, 2008, Gleisdorf, Austria

[5] Laura Siso Miroo, Tim Selke, Anita Preisler: Market Opportunities for Solar Cooling. Results from the ROCOCO Project. Proceedings of the International Seminar Solar Air-Conditioning — Experiences and Practical Applications. June 11th, 2008, Munich, Germany

[6] Uli Jakob: Overview on Small Capacity Systems. Proceedings of the International Seminar Solar Air­Conditioning — Experiences and Practical Applications. June 11th, 2008, Munich, Germany

[7] SOLARTHERMIE 2000plus. Forderkonzept des Ministeriums fur Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit im Rahmen des Energieforschungsprogramms des Bundes. Carried out by the Project Management Organisation Julich (PtJ). www. solarthermie2000plus. de

Public events

Solar One has attended about 50 public events, such as agricultural shows over the last two years. Many visitors are interested in installing renewable energy equipment and we are able to help them, explaining how it works, the potential for energy and money savings, contacts for installation companies and sources of grants and funding.

5. Financing

A fee is usually requested for schools visits. We charge EU 100 for a half day(1 school), EU 150 for a full day(2 schools) and EU 500 for a full week (10schools). Most education authorities and schools are quite happy to meet these charges. Over a year, our normal income from these charges is about EU 4,000 and our normal expenses (maintenance, fuel, road tax, etc) is about EU2,000. Therefore the whole venture is now self financing and we have even been able to pay back some of our initial funders. It should be noted, however, that the driver/ lecturer provides his services as an unpaid volunteer. If wages had to be paid, that would cost an additional EU6,000.

6. Conclusion.

The Solar One project has been a great success. It has taken renewable energy, especially solar, into the community and is now financially self sustaining. The Scottish Solar Energy Group is happy to share our experiences with any other organisation which wishes to do something similar.

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Fig 1 View of Solar One

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Fig 2: Children playing with solar train

 

Rain Water Harvesting

Подпись: Rain harvesting in a residential building, is used for power generation as well as for floor cleaning, watering trees and car washing. One inch of rain is equivalent to 3,265 liters. (i.e. 1 cubic foot is about 28 liters) STETOLIZER Recycling of 100 %, grey water aimed. R&D projects will be undertaken soon at our institute to save, store and utilize the rainwater to a maximum extent, supplying the drinking water and the rest for power generation Rainwater collection sites / areas within or outside the building should ensure zero discharge to municipal / corporation channels.

Rain water harvesting­collecting water from roof into 1500 gallon plastic cistern.

Fig 4: Schematic diagram of rain water harvesting technology

6.1 Gutter details and collection of rain water

This plan is showing the details of rain water collection. Gutter details and rain rater collection method is also shown. Two particular filters and a ultra-violet light are used to sterilize water estimating 10 gallons of water per minute.

Rain water harvesting is broadly classified into two categories. They are surface runoff and roof-top harvesting. In both the cases, it is mandatory, prior to rainy season, to clean and maintain the segments free from all other contaminations that are added earlier. This harvesting is very much essential to cater the demands of water for drinking, domestic purposes and aimed to generate power and gas. In turn over a long range helps as follows:

• Conservation of water

• Reduction of soil erosion

• Arresting of ground water decline

• Beneficiates quality of water

Mexico

A survey was done in order to identify bioclimatic design and passive solar strategies for cooling and correspondent benefices. Actually exists in Mexico programs and projects for construction of social

houses in large scale and based on that survey were selected some of the approaches used for the different types of climate, air conditioning solar systems, solar hot water and water reuse. In Ciudad Juarez were used as passive solar strategies the ground cooling ventilation and shading devices. In Mexico D. C. particular attention was given to the house implementation and windows orientation in order to minimize the solar exposure and at same time the use of effective shading devices. For hot dry climates (Santa Isabel, Chih.) is recommended the use of massive materials in order to increase the thermal inertia and established of interior microclimates. However, in Mexicali, the strategy consists on the application of thermal insulation and the electrical energy production [1].

A study on the CO2 emissions was done for the period 2001-2006 and one prevision for the period comprise 2007-2012. The construction of 6 millions of social houses until 2012, approximately 23% of the number actually existent, will contribute for an increase on 16,770 GWh of the electrical energy consumption. Nowadays is been elaborated the guidelines for the social houses in Mexico and the first text for sustainable houses Certification [2].

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Fig. 9. Examples of Bioclimatic Social Buildings in Mexico.