Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Goals to reach and steps to take

Despite the Energy Saving and Renewable Energy Law of the Republic of Armenia (2004) states about the importance of education in renewable energy no real steps in developing academic programmes as well as training efforts is made so far. It is obvious that renewable energy education is a complex programme that comprises introduction of special academic disciplines for students, training of professionals, consumer education, public awareness programmes, workshops and seminars for decision makers, etc.

Children, for instance, easily understand and accept the concept of renewable energy as it is something they can see and is the technology that is harmonized with the nature. Thus, renewable energy education at primary schools is essential in building green mentality and seeding for interest in further studies and professional orientation.

While there is a broad appreciation of the need for energy and environmental education, some countries are actively pursuing teaching activities in this area. One should expect that with increasing pressures of fossil fuel scarcity and adverse environmental impacts of their use,

Armenia should make efforts towards providing renewable energy and environmental education too. Introducing relevant inputs into the undergraduate level courses in universities have not been taken seriously so far. Educational programmes at higher level do not give adequate coverage to the subject of energy. At bachelor’s level, courses in engineering includes elements of power generation, and cover mainly conventional sources of energy. Universities at both undergraduate and graduate levels will need to emphasize concept of renewable energy in various disciplines like physics, chemistry, power and electric engineering, as well as mechanical and civil engineering, economics and environmental studies. This will help graduates to be engaged in project

developments, energy system integration, energy audits, system integrations and manufacturing as well as energy economics and planning. Universities will need to get into research activities in renewable energy technologies to meet demands for sustainable development and for solutions to replace conventional energy sources focusing on wind, solar, geothermal, fuel cells, biofuel and other technologies. Academic programmes with focus on environmental management will need to cover aspects of energy conservation. For electrical and power engineers, agriculture professionals specialized in rural development, builders and architects involved in new construction design skills are necessary for adding installation, maintenance, service, and creation of sustainable energy technologies to their businesses. There is a need to expand the courses and more extensive coverage be given to energy planning and management, technologies, environmental considerations, renewable energy resources and technical system, etc. Projects and research should be undertaken on renewables by students at graduate and postgraduate level.

The availability of educated and trained people at all levels and in all engineering disciplines is a crucial factor for the successful implementation of any programme towards sustainable use of energy, as well as preserving the environment. It is, therefore, suggested that a comprehensive plan for training manpower in the field of renewable energy technologies may be prepared by the concerned institutions or businesses; and training requirements should vary from resource to resource.

Education is a way to get public to understand the renewable energy technologies and how to benefit of it. Lack of awareness among consumers is certainly a barrier to adopt the renewables. Although many consumers consider renewable energy as a right technology providing them with facts and information can help them in making decision. Most of the farmers and rural community developers are not literate and have no knowledge of these technologies either. Thus, the goal should be a campaign to raise consumer awareness which will support and promote dissemination of renewable technologies.

A number of pilot projects in Armenia show that the grant programmes, in this regard, encourages adoption of renewables. On the other hand, adoption of new technology often requires a mental shift. This mental shift is often just as important as any lifestyle shift required. Social marketing involves social change, an intangible product. There are stages to adoption of social change. It takes time and the right approach to accomplish the desired changes. A campaign should target the appropriate audience, the message should be sufficiently motivating, the campaign should be well funded, and individuals or groups that are targeted should be given a way to respond constructively; the campaign should present target adopters with inducements to act now [12].

It is possible to change consumer attitude when public awareness campaign is well planned and implemented effectively. Simply the consumers should have the right information to make right decision. A good example is a Renewable Energy Program implemented by the California Energy Commission. In the beginning of the programme consumers were uncertain about renewable energy. After four years, a survey showed that more than 65 percent of those surveyed are familiar with renewable energy systems and more than 50 percent would be willing to pay more for a home already equipped with solar or wind technology [12]. Thus, increasing consumer awareness is the key to support renewable energy technologies and promote their adoption.

Finally, the government decision makers carry the responsibility in energy sector development planning and getting them understand the importance of independent and clean energy is key in supporting and promoting renewable energy in Armenia.

It is of nation’s and state’s interest to have renewables significantly contribute in total energy mix of the country. Certain steps will need to be taken to achieve this goal. Key educational aspects and considerations in this respect should be the following:

• start building green energy mentality at schools by introducing mandatory classes on basics of renewables

• develop educational programs to give adequate coverage of the subject at bachelor’s and master’s level at academic institutions

• educate and train manpower to ensure development of the technologies through various stages (resource assessment, design and manufacturing, installation, generation, O&M, end-users) in efficient and economical manner

• conduct awareness programs and provide expertise for government and financing institutions regarding sustainability of renewable energy

• educate the public and consumers about the near and long-term applications and benefits of renewable energy, conservation and energy efficiency

• develop networking opportunities for renewable energy educators, researchers, advocates and business people, and support in establishing training centres and partnership with advanced technological institutions and universities abroad

• support legislative initiatives for alternative energy technologies education

• involve international donor institutions in public awareness campaigns and rural community development to support and promote renewable energy technologies

• conduct seminars workshops for NGOs, businesses, government officials, conduct intellectual competitions and games at schools, and involve mass-media in public awareness campaigns and public education.

2. Conclusion

Armenia’s energy sector is heavily dependent on imported fuel and risks associated with this. This has significant impact on the country’s energy independence and energy security. Development of indigenous renewable energy source is a key for the country’s sustainable development. However, development of renewable energy faces with challenges one of which is lack of knowledge about the benefits renewable energy technologies can offer and popper education at all levels.

Renewable energy education becomes imperative for Armenia. It should start from schools, be taught at universities, as well as be comprehended by public, relevant professionals and statesmen. Introductory classes in schools and both no-degree and degree classes in universities, public awareness and decision-makers training programs will help in understanding technologies, and utilizing the country’s indigenous and sustainable energy resources. Training packages are effective tools for improving capabilities and skills and need to be developed, primarily, for the following target groups: designers, manufacturers, builders, technicians and system operators. Dissemination of renewable energy technologies needs public awareness and understanding. Awareness programme in the form of pilot projects should be promoted further. Awareness campaign on various types of renewable energy technologies should also be promoted through mass-media, public debates and even school quiz competitions. People are used to fossil fuel-based energy resources and switching over to renewable energy will not be an easy task. In order to achieve the desired objective, public have to be informed about the finite nature of fossil fuel, cost of imported fuel, energy dependency risks and adverse impact on the environment, and how they can benefit from the use of renewable energy sources. The state should set goals and develop

strategy to achieve these goals for the interest of the people and the country. Going for imperative

in education is one of such goals.


[1] “Biogas: What it is, how it is generated and how to use it”. Union of Greens of Armenia. Yerevan, 1993 (in Armenian)

[2] “We and our Planet: Renewable Energy”. Khazer Ecological-Cultural NGO. Yerevan, 2005 (in Armenian)

[3] “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Education Workshop”. Advanced Engineering Associates International/USAID. Yerevan, July 2002

[4] “Renewable Energy. Methodological Manual”. Ministry of Education of the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan, 2004 (in Armenian).

[5] “Building Renewable Energy Markets: A Public Education Strategy For State Clean Energy Funds”. Lyn Rosoff, Chris Colbert, February 2002

[6] “Education Quality and Economic Growth”. E. A. Hanushek, L. Wossmann. World Bank, Washington DC, 2007

[7] “Endogenous Growth Theory”. Aghion Philippe and Peter Howitt. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998.

[8] “Natural Resource, Education, and Economic Development”. Thorvaldur Gylfason. Center for Economic Policy Research, ISSN 0265-8003, October 2000

[9] “Renewable Energy Education Proliferates”. Stephani L. Miller. ARCHITECT Magazine,

November, 2007

[10] “Energy Crisis? What energy crisis? It’s time to think differently”. Power Engineering International, June 2008

[11] “Renewable Energy Consumer Education Marketing Plan”. California Energy Commission, February 1999

[12] “Renewable energy consumer program”. Scott Cronk, Lynette Esternon. California Energy Commission, 2002

Experimental set-up

As advanced, the device developed to have a practical approach to the above described topics consists on three main components: a variable light source, a load simulator and a set of monocrystalline solar cells. In addition to these main components, the kit is completed by a solarimeter and two general purpose electrical multimeters. Any elementary spreadsheet software is can be used for data analysis and graphic representations.


The light source is constituted by fifteen identical wells containing an incandescent lamp. The lamps are connected to the mains by a box, including corresponding fifteen switches and a feeding power selector. Each well is designed to allocate a 2V monocrystalline cell at the top (Figure 5). Every cell is illuminated by the lamp at the bottom, being the value of irradiance at the top of the well determined by the solarimeter prior the experiment.

Fig. 5 Main box structure and views of cells arrangement in the proposed device

Using the load simulator, the characteristic curve of each cell is drawn once irradiance is known. The load simulator is a potentiometer connected to the positive and negative poles of the cell [5]. The corresponding cell voltage and current are measured for different values of potentiometer resistance ranging from the short circuit to the open circuit situations. The table of experimental I-V pairs allows the graphical representation of characteristic curve for each value of irradiance. All the cells have free terminals that can be further interconnected by the use of available cables according to a selected series-parallel configuration. Once cells are interconnected, the corresponding lamps are switch-on and the curve of the complete generator can be obtained.

The curves for shaded cells in modules can be studied after simultaneous load simulation on cells (series or parallel connected) placed on wells with their corresponding lamps switched-off or regulated to a lower electrical feeding.

Rewriting Italian solar energy history

The past, the present and the future are inseparable fields for research and study in any area of human activity. Italy’s Archive on the History of Solar Energy is already providing new insights regarding the contributions made by Italian pioneers of the 19th and 20th centuries, which continue to play a role in modern or future solar energy.

For example, the archives of Giacomo Ciamician (chemist), Gaetano Vinaccia (architect and city- planner), and Giovanni Francia (mathematician) contain information that show how their pioneering work can also today be an inspiring source for researchers and scholars. Their pioneering ideas, including details that have never been published or were otherwise overlooked, can be found in a letter or in a private note, in a project or in drawings. These ideas can contribute to view Italian solar energy history in a new light.


Fig. 5 . Drawings of a large Linear Fresnel Reflector Solar Power Plant integrated in a city designed by Francia in 1965 circa (Francia Archive donated by his heirs).



Fig. 6 . Vinaccia’s 1939 book cover “The Path of the Sun in Urban Planning and Building Construction.” (Vinaccia Archive donated by his heirs).


2. Conclusion

The solar archives collection put together so far shows that in Italy there have been scientists who made original and unique contributions to the understanding and application of modern or future solar energy long before the first oil shock of 1973, such as Ciamician, Vinaccia, and Francia.

They were internationally acknowledged for their work, although they were soon forgotten after their death. Italy’s Archive on Solar Energy History should contribute to rediscover the work of these and other pioneers to the benefit of, first and foremost, researchers and scholars, but also many other professionals interested in the advancement of solar energy science, technology, and application.

6. Acknowledgements

In writing this paper I had the benefit of accounts from and contacts with many people. I would like to thank in particular M. Martelli, R. Merola, G. Nebbia, P. P. Poggio, E. Terenzoni, and the heirs of G. Francia, D. Gasperini, F. Grassi, V. Storelli and G. Vinaccia.


[1] C. Silvi, Can the History of Energy Technology and Use educate us for a Solar Energy future? The Italian Case, ISREE-9 Proceedings, ISES SWC 2003, Goteborg (Sweden); Italian version ‘Frammenti di storia dell’energia solare in Italia’ at www. gses. it 2008.

[2] Stanford Research Institute for AFASE, Applied Solar Energy Research: A Directory of World Activities and Bibliography of Significant Literature, Burda E. J. (Ed), Stanford, California, 1955.

[3] G. Righini and G. Nebbia, L’energia solare e le sue applicazioni (Solar energy and its application). Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Editore, Milano, 1966.

[4] H. Rau, L’energia solare (Solar energy). Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Verona, 1964.

[5] C. Silvi, Nasce a Brescia l’Archivio nazionale sulla storia dell’energia solare (Italy’s Archive on Solar Energy History launched in Brescia), Italia Energia, 2006; www. gses. it 2008.

[6] R. Merola, M. Martelli, Fonti per la storia dello sfruttamento dell’energia solare conservate presso l’Archivio Centrale dello Stato (Archival sources for the history of solar energy preserved at Central State Archive), Seminar “I pionieri dell’energia solare incontrano le nuove generazioni (Solar energy pioneers meet new generations)”, Rome (Italy), April 4, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[7] E. Terenzoni, Fonti per la ricerca storica sull’energia solare negli archivi italiani: strumenti di lavoro e ricerca (Archival sources and tools for historical research in Italy on solar energy), Seminar “I pionieri dell’energia solare incontrano le nuove generazioni (Solar energy pioneers meet new generations)”, Rome (Italy), April 4, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[8] P. P. Poggio, Il ruolo della memoria sull’energia solare (History’s role in solar energy), Seminar “I pionieri dell’energia solare incontrano le nuove generazioni (Solar energy pioneers meet new generations)”, Rome (Italy), April 4, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[9] G. Azzoni, Il museo dell’energia idroelettrica. Dalla goccia alla scintilla (The Museum of Hydroelectricity. From the drop to the spark), Rivista AB Atlante bresciano n.95 estate 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[10] C. Silvi, The work of Italian solar energy pioneer Giovanni Francia (1911 — 1980), Proceedings ISES SWC 2005; www. gses. it 2008.

[11] C. Silvi, Storia e attualita del fondo Giovanni Francia (1911 — 1980) (History and current events associated with Giovanni Francia Archive, Seminar ‘L’archivio di Giovanni Francia e il solare termico a concentrazione (Giovanni Francia Archive and concentrating solar thermal)’, at Fondazione Luigi Micheletti and Museo dell’Industria e del Lavoro "Eugenio Battisti, Brescia, May 15, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[12] G. Nebbia, Giovanni Francia: un breve ricordo (A brief remembrance of Giovanni Francia), Seminar ‘L’archivio di Giovanni Francia e il solare termico a concentrazione (Giovanni Francia Archive and concentrating solar thermal)’, at Fondazione Luigi Micheletti and Museo dell’Industria e del Lavoro "Eugenio Battisti, Brescia, May 15, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[13] C. Silvi, Solar Building Practices and Urban Planning in the Work of Gaetano Vinaccia (1889 — 1971), Poster presentation, Proceedings International Solar Cities Congress, Oxford, 2006; www. gses. it 2008.

[14] C. Silvi, Remembering the founder of ISES ITALIA, ISES Newsletter December 2005.

[15] C. Silvi, La storia della pompa Somor e dei suoi inventori (The story of Somor pump and its inventors), Poster exhibition at “La Fiera del Sole”, Osnago, May 15 — 18, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

[16] M. Venturi, V. Balzani, M. T. Gandolfi, Fuels From Solar Energy. A Dream of Giacomo Ciamician,

The Father of Photochemistry, Proceedings ISES SWC 2005; www. gses. it 2008.

[17] G. Nebbia, G. B. Kauffman, Prophet of Solar Energy: A Retrospective View of Giacomo Luigi Ciamician (1857-1922), the Founder of Green Chemistry, on the 150th Anniversary of His Birth, Chem. Educator 2007, 12, 362-369; www. gses. it 2008.

[18] G. Nebbia, La ricerca storica sullo sviluppo dell’energia solare (History research on the development of solar energy), Seminar “I pionieri dell’energia solare incontrano le nuove generazioni (Solar energy pioneers meet new generations)”, Rome (Italy), April 4, 2008; www. gses. it 2008.

Towards A Large Solar Energy Footprint

Walid El Baba

Lebanon Solar Energy Society

1- Purpose of the works

It is important in our area and mainly in Lebanon where there is more than 300 sunny days yearly to develop a large solar energy foot print through a wide cultural change according to age group together with a large awareness campaign at a national level. Information dissemination and awareness equipment/projects constitute an essential part of this work to sustain the Renewable Energy Technologies in Lebanon and in the world.

2- Methodology

We can divide the age groups in 4 categories:

1st group: 12 — 15 years old (students in secondary schools)

2nd group: 15 — 20 years old (Technical schools)

3rd group: 20 — 25 years old (Students-Engineers)

4th group: above 25 years old (Engineers, installers, industrials etc…)

Method and results

For a better representation, only 4 cells have been selected to be interconnected. The undertaken experiments were the following:

Подпись: 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 V (Volts.)

After settling the same illumination level in each cell lamp, individual cells characteristic curve was generated by potentiometer method to evaluate the observed differences in shape and basic cell parameters. As result (Figure 6), intrinsic mismatch phenomenon became evident, showing this set of 4 cells a maximum difference in short circuit current of 30 mA and 0,14 Volts in open circuit voltage (average mismatch 2,5 %)

Fig 6. Schematic arrangement for individual cell curves generation and results for 4 selected cells

The interconnection modes here considered were a 4 cell series combination (4s) and a 2 combinations of 2 series cell junction parallel combination (2s-2p). By the potentiometer method, curves for the reference illumination level in all the cells were again obtained, in this case, for each complete generator. Table 1 and Figure 7 summarizes the obtained results.

Table 1. Obtained basic parameters for individual cells and combinations.


Isc (Amps.)




















Подпись: 1st International Congress on Heating, Cooling, and Buildings - 7th to 10th October, Lisbon - Portugal / 0 2 4 6 8 10 V (Volts.)
Подпись: 0 1 2 3 4 5 V (Volts.)

Fig. 7 Characteristic curve for 4s (left) and 2s-2p (right) interconnections

Among other results, as the current/voltage addition laws verification, it must be highlighted how the worst mismatched cell in the series interconnection (#3) determines the short circuit current of the whole generator, as expected according theoretical basis.

To study the mismatching due to partial shadowing of interconnected elements in the PV generator, the above 4s cells configuration has been selected. Shadowing of one of the series cells has been provoked by lowering the electrical feed to the lamp of one of the cells (Figure 8).


Fig. 8 Experimental arrangement for the study of mismatch effect provoked by partial generator shadowing

In this situation, potentiometer was used to draw corresponding load curves either for the complete mismatched generator and the shadowed cell. Figure 9 includes the obtained results as well as the corresponding curve for the no partially shadowed 4 cells series combination.

As result, in short circuit conditions, mismatched 4 cells generator is clearly affected by the lower current yield of shadowed cell, which determines the maximum current of the whole set, whereas open circuit voltage maintains its value. In this case, the reduction in generators parameters reach up to 35 % because mismatch degree has a higher value as usual in externally caused cells unbalance.

1st International Congress on Heating, Cooling, and Buildings — 7th to 10th October, Lisbon — Portugal /


Fig. 9 Obtained curve for partially shadowed generator and for mismatched cell

Regarding the electrical characteristics of mismatched cell under this situation, Figure 9 also clearly show how this cell is affected by a reverse biased current coming from the rest of the cells generator. The used illumination levels and cell number in this experiment have been set to preserve mismatched cell integrity.

3. Conclusions

This work describes an experimental arrangement developed at UAL aimed to serve as educational tool in courses and lessons on PV generators performance and the study of specific effects as the mismatch loses in modules or arrays. All the components of the device are low cost and easily available in most of the university laboratories and the results of the experiences curves can be immediately related to the theory. As future improvements, cells temperature follow-up, specific light source use and safety diodes study will be considered.


[1] Kaushika N. D. and A. K. Rai, Energy 32-5 (2007) 755-759.

[2] Alonso-Garcia M. C., J. M. Ruiz and F. Chenlo, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90-3 (2006) 329-340.

[3] Kaushika Narendra D, Guatam Nalin K. Energy yield simulations of interconnected solar PV arrays. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 2003;18(1):127—34.

[4] Woyte A., J. Nijs and R. Belmans; Solar Energy 74-3 (2003) 213-217.

[5] Osterwald C. R. (2003) Standards, Calibration and Testing of PV Modules and Solar Cells, in Markvart T. and L. Castaner (Eds.) Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications. pp. 793-856. Elsevier, Oxford.


Ziva Kristl*, Mitja Kosir, Ales Krainer

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering,
Chair for Buildings and Constructional Complexes
Jamova cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel ++386 1 4768 609, Fax ++386 1 4250 688
*E-Mail ZKristl@fgg. uni-lj. si


At the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Ljubljana the senior year students attend course on bioclimatic design of buildings. In the academic year 2006/2007 they carried out a joint study [1] dealing with interaction among daylight levels and heating energy demand of their buildings in relation to properties of the applied glazing. Students also discussed the concept of passive house in relation to inside environment quality and compared the passive and the bioclimatic concepts. In the case of 27 student-selected buildings calculations showed that change from double to triple window glazing resulted in average reduction of specific heating energy demand (Qn/Au) by 14.4%. The same intervention at the same building configuration resulted in reduction of average illuminance level (Eav-eq) by immense 25.3%. Very similar results were obtained in an independent parallel study [2] carried out by the staff of Chair for Buildings and Constructional Complexes (KSKE).

Keywords: living environment, teaching, holistic approach

1. Introduction

In recent years sustainability in buildings has gained its importance in professional as well as in laic circles and it is often presented as the next big thing in construction industry. Just a brief look into the history of architecture reveals that sustainability has always been an integral part of construction. What has changed in the last century is that the technology, materials and speed of construction have altered dramatically. Despite of these changes in modern construction, sustainability should still be viewed as an integral part of design and building.

At the Faculty of Civil Engineering (FGG), University of Ljubljana (UL) the senior year students attend course on bioclimatic design of buildings. The lectures comprise building physics course, bio­climatic design principles, energy sources and innovative materials. The objective of the seminar is to nudge future civil engineers to use their knowledge in a holistic way. In this line of thought advanced technologies as well as old traditional principles are presented and the students are expected to apply them in their projects. In the academic year 2006/2007 the students were involved in a discussion about whether to use technological maximum for a specific area (e. g. reduction of heating demand) and if/how this decision influences other areas of internal environment design (e. g. daylighting). They carried out a joint study dealing with interaction among daylight levels and heating energy demand of


their buildings in relation to U, g and tv values of the applied glazing. Because the reduction of thermal transmittance influences optical properties of glazing as well, we were primarily interested to what degree the decrease of U value deteriorates daylighting in a building. Lower U values also reduce the transmission losses of a building (but also solar gains), so we also compared the degree to which the energy balance of a building improves due to better glazing and considered if lower heat losses compensate poorer daylighting of internal spaces.

Program of work per group

Each group has its particularity, teaching topics and training system:

-1st group: we propose to have a demonstrative truck equipped with various materials gadgets educational tools to be shown to the students when visiting schools in coordination with the ministry of education and Lebanese center of energy conservation project (LCECP) which is a joint project between the Ministry of Energy and Water (EWM) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The truck shall be provided with enclosure with sufficient space that would accommodate the renewable energy demonstrative equipment and materials along with the educational and awareness tools. The truck would enable the students to check how these equipment work and energy being transformed from one type to another (Solar to Electricity, Solar to thermal wind to Electricity, Hydro to Electricity etc.). These demonstrative equipment and materials shall be the following:

Solar water heater with hot water storage tank 80 l.

PV cells including batteries, inverter and charger.

Small wind turbine/ generator.

Hydro turbine.

Various measuring devices.


The truck shall also be equipped with educational and awareness tools that can be used during demonstration like: TV, DVD player, sound system, CD’s, brochures, pamphlets, etc… with small desk cabinet for PC station.

The truck enclosure shall be equipped with roller shutters that can be closed during transportation and opened during demonstration and exhibition purposes.

-2nd group: 2 types of educational programs can be provided for this age group.

1- Academicals level in Laboratories through experiences, performance of thermal collectors, photovoltaic demonstration center, wind energy, hydroelectric, etc

2- At practical level including installation, manufacturing and assembling works, as for example the following procedures:

To assemble and weld a flat plate collector with its different components.

To assemble photovoltaic cells with inverters and batteries.

To assemble a small wind energy.

It is important, in this age group, to give the students in the same time a real educational and training program based on both theoretical and practical aspects insisting in the meantime on the services that the use of this type of energy can provide.

-3rd group: Each university has its own educational program for renewable energy courses, the experimental side as well as solar projects executed and developed by the students-engineers within their universities courses and graduation studies must include various solar energy applications as per following example:

AUB (American University of Beirut-Large established university,6000 population, Engineering faculty):

-Present a course MECH 517(Energy Efficient Buildings)that involves all aspects of Buildings physics and design including the impact of solar heat gain/losses and the use of active and passive systems.

• Several news courses now added under a new MS track in

• Weather station with logging of all relevant solar data

• Research on solar systems:

o — Experimental assessment of refrigerant filled solar heat pipe system o — Assessment of solar-driven absorption refrigeration systems o — Environmental chamber for use in many experiments o — Solar-thermoelectric concentrator system with full tracking capability

• Involves students in group projects under the Senior design course auspices.

Some projects that have been accomplished are:

o Solar Distillation

o Solar disinfection of water using solar energy. Temperature, bacterial counts and o Design aspects.

o Solar heating of a university room using an air-collector with circulator and distribution

o system.

o Installation and testing of trough concentration system with assessment of possible o applications.

o Hybrid solar, thermoelectric portable trough for electricity generation. o Assessment of solar heat gain and ventilation in a stationary automobile. o Solar heat gains in university buildings with software usage.

HCU (Hariri Canadian University-small new university,800 population, Engineering Faculty)

• — Presents a course MECH 545 on fundamentals of solar energy and basic solar thermal

• design with the following objectives:

• — Familiarize students with basic solar nomenclature and definitions.

• — Acquaint the students with the basic underlying principles at play in solar energy use

• — Impact on the students a basic understanding of the fundamentals of solar collector

• design.

• — Demonstrate to students how to roughly assess solar collector performance.

• — Motivate the students to apply solar energy where possible.

• — Train students in critical thinking as related to feasibility and environment.

LAU (Lebanese American University)

Students At the Lebanese American University are exposed to renewable energy concepts at various levels. An elective environmental science course is given including a significant portion dealing with renewable energy. Students have successfully constructed a solar cooker as a part of their work for this course. In addition, Biodiesel synthesis is undertaken in organic chemistry lab experiments and Dr Ahmad Houri and his students have won a national award for their work on this project.

Aside from course work, students are often exposed to research and review related to evaluating the implementation of various renewable energy technologies for the benefit of electricity supply and consumption reduction in Lebanon.

-4th group: The educational and awareness program should be coordinate with many national players as:

• Syndicate of Engineers and Architects in Beirut-Lebanon.

• Industrial Research Institute (IRI).

• National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR).

• Ministry of Energy and Water.

• Ministry of Education.

• Ministry of Environment.

• Ministry of Public Works.

• United Nation Specialized Agencies like UNIDO and ESCWA.

-LSES Solar seminars:

The Lebanese Solar Energy Society (LSES) has developed with the Syndicate of Engineers and Architects in Beirut its 1st solar energy meeting on march 02 by defining the role of the Syndicate in developing and integrating the use of solar energy in buildings as well as other topics during the past 6 years LSES has developed a software calculation program for solar thermal system applied to Lebanon with the following design and usage guidelines:

The program is a tool that helps in sizing solar systems used for domestic water heating.

The program is a guideline to determine the feasibility and the pay back period of the solar system.

Three types of solar panels with different efficiencies and gross areas are given for selection; they are based on real brands available in the market.

The number of panels to be input by the user, and then the solar ratio to be checked such that it covers the target heating capacity without exceeding a certain pay back period.

As an economic guideline, a minimum ratio of 70% for the worst month can be targeted.

A choice of hot water (50 Deg C) use per person is given based on European standard figures:

Residence: 50 lit/person/day

Hotel: 180 lit/person/day

Hospital: 100 — 140 lit/person/day

Restaurant: 18 lit/meal/day

In order to maximize collectors efficiency it is recommended to select the size of the tank based on the maximum need per day during the year, or daily heated water.

The energy cost for electricity and fuel can be adjusted by accessing the data sheet.

It should be noted that the program leaves room for the engineer judgment to suit variable conditions that can not be limited by few choices.

-Architectural integrated solar system.

The Syndicate has also imposed in the construction permit file the integration of thermal solar system for hot water production in the architectural drawings mainly on roof by mean of a reserved area on roof for implementing the solar panels as well as the necessary shaft and space in the mechanical room for the hot water storage tank.

-Norms in association with LIBNOR.

Establish the appropriate norms as per EN norms including Solar standards and certification procedure manuals (already established by LSES and delivered to the LCECP and MEW), thanks to UNDP and MEW for choosing LSES as a solar thermal expert for the development of a Lebanese solar standard in collaboration with the Lebanese Norms Institution LIBNOR.

-Testing facilities by IRI.

Certifications and test facilities in coordination with the IRI. This laboratory will be launched end 2008 and will deliver certificates for thermal solar manufacturer in order to increase the quality of local production reduce the cost and create more jobs opportunities in this field.

-Incentives and encouraging laws by the Government.

-Training courses within CE program and European Embassies (Italian, German, etc…) to train the plumbers in performing good work based on good knowledge in

Type of solar panels.

Type of storage tanks.

Pipe work, insulation and heat exchangers.

Control system.

Commissioning and start up procedures.

3- Conclusion

The proposal objectives and impact are:

Increase the level of awareness in relation with the use of Renewable Energy technologies and equipment on National level with emphasis towards schools and universities.

Support on developing capacity building of Lebanese engineers on Renewable Energy technologies.

Set up a “quality label” for enhancing the renewable Energy components and especially the solar ones for the satisfaction of the end user by implementing a tested and certified solar collector product as well as related services.

Create a partnership with the Lebanese media to cover these activities.

Strengthen the economy and create new jobs.

Distribute solar prizes for distinguished renewable energy application projects in each age’s group, one example is the solar prize, within the solar schools-Brighter future Grand prize competition gathered in Orlando-Florida-USA from 6th to 12th of August 2005 to celebrate the anniversary of the ISES. (Students from grade 1-9 i. e. primary and secondary). LSES was pleasantly surprised when ISES informed the Board that two students of the “Bawaba Al Ouzai” Institution in Beirut — Lebanon won the 1st international grand prize.

Plan regular visits to sites in the country and in the region involving Renewable Energy applications in general and solar ones in particular.

Establish an Energy center at a large scale including basic demonstration examples for all ages and integrating most of solar applications. This energy center will use the maximum of renewable energy technologies in the building in order to offer a show-case for the integration of renewable energy technologies including:

• Electricity production with PV.

• Geothermal heating and cooling system.

• Solar hot water distribution system.

• Together with energy efficiency measures like:

• Insulation of facade and roof.

• Double glazing and high performance window.

• High efficiency and low consumption lighting system.

• Natural ventilation system.

• High performance mechanical equipment

Furthermore it will offer measurement and experimental platform in renewable energy applications.


MEW-UNDP: project No LCECP -09/07 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Educational Demonstrative Truck.

Dr. Rida Nuwayhid — Hariri Canadian university — College of Engineering — e-mail: nuwayhidry@hcu. edu. lb

The Renewable Energy House — Europe’s headquarters for Renewable Energy EREC.

"Chemical Aspects in the Development of Innovative Environmental education approach". Ahmad Houri and Hassan El-Rifai. Proceedings of "International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT)", pp 618-620. May 28-30th, 2008, Penang, Malaysia.

"Impact of Rising Fossil Fuel Prices on the Use of Solar Thermal Collectors in Lebanon". Ahmad Houri. Proceeding of the "World Renewable Energy Congress IX", p221. August 19-25* 2006. Florence, Italy.

"Biodiesel Preparation as an Educational Tool" Ahmad Houri and Dany Doughan. Proceedings of the "World Renewable Energy Congress VII" p529. June 29th — July 5th, 2002. Cologne, Germany.

"Biodiesel Out of Waste Cooking Oil" Ahmad F. Houri, Hiba Moubayed. Project presentation at the "Fifth Conference and Exhibition — LIRA (Lebanese Industrial Research Achievements)", November 27th to December 2nd, 2001. Beirut, Lebanon.

The Energy Efficiency Evolution of the Water Heating Process in Brazil’s Residential Sector: The PROCEL Seal Program contribution

E. Salvador1*; R. David2; K. Lepetitgaland3; F. Lopes4 and G. dos Santos5

1 Eletrobras, Support Division, PROCEL, Av. Rio Branco 53/20, 20090-004 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2 Eletrobras, Energy Conservation Planning Division 3 Eletrobras, Brazilian Center of Information on Energy Efficiency — Procel Info 4 Eletrobras, Energy Efficiency Department 5 Eletrobras, Energy Conservation Nucleus of Research and Projects * Author for correspondence: salvador@eletrobras. com


The Brazilian “National Electricity Conservation Program” — PROCEL runs regular surveys in the electric energy consumption market in order to assess the number of electric equipments owned by each household as well as their respective types and usage. These studies are not only used as valuable database to plan better the actions of this Program; they also evaluate its performance by identifying the level of penetration of the most efficient electric equipments within the residential sector in which PROCEL runs its main lines of action: to make available and to promote the most efficient technologies.

In the case of solar energy, PROCELs orientation is to encourage its wider use for water heating as well as to improve technological advance in heating solar collectors and thermal tanks.

In this context, the purpose of this work is to present an overview of: the usage and the efficient utilization of solar energy for water heating in Brazil; the evolution of energy efficiency in these types of equipments as well as the main technological advances in this sector.

Keywords: PROCEL Seal, water heating, solar energy, market assessment

1. Introduction

PROCEL was established in December 1985 by the Brazilian Government in partnership with the Ministries of Mines and Energy (MME) and of Trade and Industry (MIC) [1]. Eletrobras is the Brazilian holding for the generation, the transmission and the distribution of electric energy nationwide [2] in charge of the implementation of PROCEL. Its objective is to promote awareness about electric energy consumption in order to avoid waste and to lower the costs and the investments made to respond to the increasing demand in the electrical sector. PROCEL runs numerous activities through various sub-programs to foment the efficient use and usage of electric energy. In turn, these sub-programs focus at the level of different sectors such as Residential,

Trade, Industry, Education, Sanitation and Public Lighting [3]. Following the 2001 national electric energy crisis and the subsequent rationing of this input, PROCELs actions have been drawing more and more attention. PROCELs action frameworks are based on a nationwide survey, regularly ran, to assess the existing number, type and usage of electric equipments called Studies about the Ownership and the Utilization of Equipments (Pesquisa de Posse de Equipamentos e Habitos de Uso — PPH in Portuguese) [4] which assist the strategic planning of the Brazilian electrical sector and define PROCELs action priorities and its achievements.

The latest survey, ran in 2005, was supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as part of the Energy Efficiency Project (PEE in Portuguese), the result of a partnership between the World Bank and Eletrobras_ the latter actuating as the institution obtaining and transferring the funds

donated to the Brazilian Government [5]. This survey was lead by the Papal Catholic University — Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RJ in Portuguese), hired by Eletrobras. It was run on equipments from sectors of both high and low voltages. Representative of the residential sector, for example, a total of 9,847 households [6], from 21 separate electric energy utilities, were investigated.

In Brazil, since 2007, projects encouraging the use of solar energy for water heating, in particular, have turned more and more common to meet the Mecanisms for Clean Progress (Mecanismos de Desenvolvimento Limpo-MDL in Portuguese). Indeed, heat generation at peak-hour represents a very high percentage of the total electric energy consumption in Brazil, because electric systems are designed and built to meet the maximum demand requested at any given time. Considering these facts, one can only ponder the unfortunate contribution to Global Warming and its subsequent negative effects on the environment.

The potential for solar thermal heating and cooling systems to reduce. the carbon emissions of domestic properties in a northern European country

I. Knight1*, M. Rhodes1, F. Agyenim1 and E. Ampatzi1

1 Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University.
Corresponding Author, knight@,cf. ac. uk


This paper provides conclusions from a WERC-funded project undertaken to assess the potential for Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling Systems to reduce the carbon emissions from domestic properties in Wales, UK. The project is based on 4 main elements:

• the physical testing of a novel solar thermally driven air-conditioning system in the Welsh climate to ascertain the real-world and laboratory performances of the system as a whole and its principal components

• the characterisation of the Welsh Housing stock into 13 major construction types

• the thermal modelling of these 13 types to obtain their heating, cooling and DHW demands, and hence their ‘traditional’ carbon emissions and the ‘solar thermal’ carbon emissions

• the aesthetic and design issues to do with integrating such systems into domestic properties, and their potential effect on the overall system efficiency

This paper synthesises some of the findings from these elements to provide a first answer to the question about the potential contribution that Solar Thermal technologies could make to reducing the carbon emissions associated with heating, cooling and DHW use, from both new and existing housing in Wales. This paper presents these findings for each of the housing types individually, as well as for the domestic sector in Wales as a whole.

This information is of importance in establishing whether Solar Thermal should be part of the country’s future energy mix, and potentially how much it could contribute. The work is especially timely within Wales’ stated ambition for all new buildings to be built to zero carbon standards by 2011.

The main conclusion from this work is that the use of Solar Thermal for heating, cooling and DHW for domestic housing in Wales leads to predicted reductions between 10 — 25% in the total carbon emissions, regardless of the type or age of dwelling.

Keywords: Solar Thermal Cooling, Solar Thermal Heating, Carbon Emissions Savings, Existing Buildings, Solar Thermal DHW, Wales

1. Introduction

This paper presents the main findings from a physical and thermal modelling study of the potential for Solar Thermal Air Conditioning Systems (STACS) to reduce the carbon emissions from the domestic housing sector in Wales, United Kingdom. As an autonomous region of the United Kingdom, Wales is one of only 3 countries in the World which have a commitment to sustainability written into their constitution. It is now actively exploring how it might reduce its Carbon emissions as part of this remit. A Renewable Energy Route Map for Wales was published by the Welsh Assembly Government in 2008 [1] exploring how Renewable Energy systems might contribute towards this goal across all sectors of society.

Previous conference papers [2 — 4] have introduced the first findings from the project, looking at the operation of STACS systems and the Welsh Housing stock. This paper, along with other papers presented at the EUROSUN 2008 conference [5 — 7], complete the findings from this project to date.

This paper is in 3 sections:

• A short summary of the Welsh Housing stock showing the % of each type of house in Wales.

• A review of the modelling findings for the heating, cooling and DHW demands for each house type, with and without Thermal Energy Storage.

• A first assessment, based on the above sections, of the potential contribution that STACS might make to the annual heating, cooling and DHW demands in each type of housing, and hence the Carbon Emission reductions that might be achieved in the Welsh Housing sector as a whole.

Objective of the study

Single float glass transmits the majority of solar radiation between 315 and 2500 nm and absorbs other wavelengths. In real-time situations non-perpendicular incidence angles of radiation, double or triple glazing, additional low-E coatings, glass coloring and layer of dust and dirt on the surface result in much lower transmission of solar radiation than declared. When taking into account dirt on glass in a city environment (e. g. correction factor 0.8) and solar incidence angle typical of temperate climates (e. g. correction factor 0.8), transmission of single glass for visible light decreases from 89% to 57%

(89 % x 0.8 x 0.8 = 57 %). To decrease thermal transmission of windows, double or triple glazing is used. U value of a double glazing with air filling is usually about 3.00 W/m2K. If the window system is improved by a low-E coating with Argon filling, U value drops to 1.16 W/m2K. However, lower U value also causes lower transmittance for the visual part of solar spectrum (tv = 78 %) and lower transmittance for the whole solar spectrum (g = 63 %). Further improvements of U values bring us to the use of triple glazing (double low-E coating and Argon filling (U = 0.60 W/m2K) of Krypton filling (U = 0.58 W/m2K)). As mentioned above, further lowering of U values cause even lower transmittance for solar radiation.

Students also discussed the concept of passive house in relation to inside environment quality and compared the passive and the bioclimatic concepts. The goal of the passive house is the reduction of heating energy use to less than 15 kWh/m2a. To reach this goal, glazing — which interests us most — has to be triple. This consequently reduces the dynamic communication between the inside and the outside environment. In the philosophy of the passive house design the reduced daylighting and cutting off the direct contact with external environment is viewed as collateral damage. But the concept of alienating people from natural environment is according to many studies harmful. The external environment is not hostile; on the contrary, it has simulative effects on body and mind. Daylight provides quality lighting, stimulates the sense of sight and is an important communication between the internal and external space [3]. Constant changes of light improve concentration and responsiveness. The same goes for hearing and the sense of smell. The bioclimatic concept, on the other hand, is based on simultaneous adaptation to external conditions and internal needs. The closer the building is able to follow these two profiles (temperature dynamics, solar and thermal radiation, relative humidity and air stratification), the more efficient it is. The unstable model represents the dynamic structure, which functions in real time. The goal of the above-described interventions in the framework of bioclimatic design is a healthy living and working environment with low energy use and not low energy use with physiological minimum.

Glazing properties have direct influence on the level of daylight in living and working environment and on energy balance of buildings. Low daylight levels have proven negative influences on comfort, health and efficiency of people as well as on energy used for lighting and cooling of spaces. Studies

carried out in the 70-ies in the USA showed possible energy savings for lighting of office spaces in the range between 15% and 20% if enough daylight was available (also regarding quality factors) [3]. Lately the advantages and positive effects of daylight on efficiency and sales increase were proven in the HGM study [4, 5] carried out in 2003. Of course, lower U value of glazing decreases transmission losses through the building envelope, but when designing non-transparent parts with U values 0.2 W/m2K or lower, the majority of heat losses are produced due to ventilation, not because of heat transmission. Because of the above-mentioned reasons and complex influences on the functioning of the entire building system, window properties are not a trivial question and deserve a systematic analysis.