Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

E-learning module on the platform

One of the tasks of the project, was the elaboration of a platform on Internet to access to the different e-learning modules developed.

The E-learning modules are therefore composed by 9 lessons. Next is a brief description of them.

Chapter 1: basic concepts on solar radiation

This first chapter deals with the basic concepts needed to study solar radiation. This radiation, which is the energy emitted by the sun, has its origin in the nuclear fusion reactions of the hydrogen that occur in the sun’s nucleus. This radiation is propagated through space in all directions by means of electromagnetic waves.

Besides the make up of the radiation, another variable is its direction, which depends on the position of the installation, given by its co-ordinates of latitude and longitude, as well as by the time of year associated with those co-ordinates.

Chapter 2: solar thermal collectors

This chapter describes the parts that make up solar collectors and how they work. The collectors are used to capture solar energy and do so by taking advantage of the greenhouse effect produced in their interior.

The three basic mechanisms of transmitting heat are here described. These mechanisms are conduction, convection and radiation, the latter being the most important means of exchanging energy in solar installations.

The final section of this chapter deals with how to calculate the efficiency of solar thermal collectors.

Chapter 3: existing components in solar thermal utilities

The third chapter describes the different components of solar thermal energy utilities.

These components include the accumulation systems, heat exchangers, pumps, cooling towers and other elements such as pipes, valves, vents and deaerators.

Accumulation systems are used to compensate the temporal separation between solar energy production and the consumption of heat or cold.

Chapter 4: types of building loads

The different loads and gains that must be taken into account when calculating the size of the climatization facility for a building will be defined in this chapter.

The calculation of the thermal loads is carried out starting from the gains for each space. By gain, we understand all those heat flows that enter (positive) or leave (negative) of the control volume defined by the physical limits of the space.

Chapter 5: different ways to calculate cooling loads

This chapter presents the different methods for calculating cooling loads. That is, a description of the instant load method, Carrier’s E20 method, the ASHRAE methods, the function transfer method and the thermal balance method.

Chapter 6: absorption chillers: technologies

Cooling systems based on sorption cycles form part of the same group as the conventional compression systems, as the cooling is achieved by means of the evaporation of a liquid at low pressure. The difference between the two methods basically lies in the procedure used to recuperate the vapour formed during evaporation.

Of the cooling systems by thermal compression, this chapter deals with cooling by means of absorption. In this kind of system, the absorbent is a liquid while the other substance used as a system coolant is in a gaseous state when absorbed.

Chapter 7: adsorption chillers: technologies

This chapter deals with adsorption chillers. These systems are based on the capacity that some solid materials have for fixing the molecules of a fluid. They are generally solids with a porous surface and which liberate heat during the process. This heat must be extracted as in absorption systems.

Depending on how the coolant interacts with the porous surface, there are discontinuous, closed — cycle systems and continuous, open-cycle systems. This chapter deals with the closed-cycle systems, generally known as adsorption chillers.

Chapter 8: desiccant cooling systems

This chapter deals with another system for cooling by thermal compression. It is a system based on adsorption, but unlike the adsorption devices seen in the previous chapter, these function in continuous open cycle. They are the so-called dessicant systems.

Unlike the water chillers (whether conventional, or using absorption or adsorption) dessicant systems directly treat the air which is to enter the premises to be climatized.

These systems can be used for different purposes, as in the single air-conditioned systems, producing an air flow with the appropriate temperature and humidity conditions; or air ventilation preparation systems.

Chapter 9: solar cooling systems. configurations.

“Decision Scheme for the selection of the appropriate technology using solar thermal air­conditioning” [5] is a document published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), as a result of Task 25: Solar Assisted Air Conditioning or Buildings.

For this part of the course, it has been considered best to follow the said document, as it adequately represents the possible basic solar cooling configurations, as well as a decision diagram with respect to the system’s characteristics.

Every single lesson have five questions that will be asked to the student randomly during the ENTRANCE TEST (essential to verify the student initial knowledge’s related to the topics explained in the e-module), the SELF EVALUATION TEST (essential to verify how much the student has learned during the e-module) and finally also during the FINAL TEST.

Each question will have at least three possible answers of which only one is correct.

Gender and Energy Workshops for Policy Makers and Other Stakeholders

Gender and energy workshops would inform stakeholders of the synergistic values of government, private sector and NGOs collaborating and their appropriate roles in energy, women and rural development programs. It will encourage an activist approach on the part of governments, industry and NGOs in developing centers of excellence in renewable energy and in support for RE projects that facilitate rural development and economic expansion in the rural and peri-urban areas. Such workshops should be designed to bring together providers and users of RE technology. Presenters should include academicians, NGO officials, Government agencies, donor agencies, financial institutions, and industry practitioners. This would l be a catalyst for dismantling the barriers to the widespread application of renewables to improve the economy and quality of life in rural Mozambique.

Studies [2, 3] have shown that societies that discriminate by gender pay a high price in terms of their ability to develop and to reduce poverty. To promote women empowerment, the workshops must emphasize institutional reforms, based on a foundation of equal rights for women and men; policies for sustained economic development; and active measures to redress present gender disparities. In the workshops, experts must examine the conceptual and empirical links between gender, public policy, and development outcomes, and demonstrate the value of applying a gender perspective to the design of development policies.

Social and development impact of women’s empowerment extends beyond the individual woman, to her family, to her community, and for generations to come. Furthermore, women, the greatest consumers of energy, the vital engine that drives rural development, are known to be much better credit risk than men. Yet, women in developing and transitional countries such as Mozambique have no access to credit and are largely excluded in renewable energy projects. Presenters in the workshop should examine the reasons for the disparity and means for overcoming them.

G. Challenges and Lessons Learned

The energy workshops for rural girls which was first planned to be residential workshops met with two difficulties — the high cost of implementation and the reluctance of the girls to break from tradition and leave the village to spend two weeks in a city with total strangers. The cost overrun is due to the fact that the girls surveyed would not travel alone to a city which exasperates the problem of limited availability of transportation to the remote areas. With the revision of project plan to offer the workshops in regional centers close to home, this problem was solved. Also, the community town hall meetings also raised the level of interest and support of the program which all but removed their fears and reservations. Furthermore, many more young girls in the villages could only be reached by the traveling laboratory workshops as the project visit their schools in the villages.

References: [1] Joann Ledgerwood, “Microfinance Handbook:An Institutional and Financial Perspective”, World Bank Publications, id = 213006, June,2000

[2] “Engedering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice”, World Bank Publications, id = 217246, January, 2001

[3] Ellen Kennedy, “Gender and Renewable Energy: An Issue of Language”, Proceedings of Village ’98. Sustainable Energy and Gender Workshop, Washington D. C., October, 1998.


The authors give many thanks to Engineering Information (EiF) Foundation, the USAID, and the United Negro College Fund Special Programs (UNCF) for their financial support for the project. Many thanks are also due to the university administrations at Durban University of Technology, Eduardo Mondlane University, and Savannah State University for their support.

A Modern Sustainable Solar Building. — Self Sufficient And Independent

M. V. Vijaya Padma1* and M. V.Bhaskara Rao2
1 Senior Architect, Vignanodai (R&D), D-5 / 79 Kendria Vihar, Yelahanka,
Bangalore — 560064, India.

2 Professor Emeritus, Vignanodai (R&D), Sir M. M. VIT, International Airport Road,

Bangalore-562157, India

* kittapadma@yahoo. com


Good air, water, power and fuel are the critical elements needed for the survival of humanity and to lead a happy comfortable life on Earth. Achievement of this is feasible by implementing the Innovative Solar Building Technologies to eliminate the adverse environmental impacts that are responsible for global warming. Globally many countries like India possess moderate to high solar insulation characters delivering solar energy of 1000 watts per square meter which is about 32.8 million MWe per second on the surface of the earth. Utilization of this solar energy for buildings, being the prime sources of consumption of electricity, calls for conservation of energy in achieving sustainability and environmental protection to extend safety, security and self-sufficiency. A typical modern independent building, Universal Home, is designed keeping a view on global economics, suitable for a common man. Accordingly an independent modular building is proposed for construction implementing the advanced devices in achieving environmental sustainability. The salient design features of this building, like landscape design for sustainability, economic concepts for the selection of energy saving materials in meeting self-sufficiency and conservation of energy, induction of rain water harvesting device and nano-technology based lighting systems are focused and presented.

Key words: global warming, Universal Home, landscape design

1. Introduction

Innovative building energy technologies proved and established viable designs over conventional devices in controlling the cost and enhancing the efficiency, life, safety and security. In addition, value added methods are linked to research approach to increase the potential, reducing risk by limiting accelerations to adopt new technologies. Solar buildings are the only energy saving buildings for the reduction of green house gas emissions in and around surroundings. Constructions of buildings, based on the solar energy systems, have become primary importance [1, 2, 3]. Also the quality of building envelope directly influences the heating and cooling range requirements to maintain the building thermal environments normal. [4, 5, 6]. However the energy efficiency depends on the climatic conditions of the location of the place as well as the prevailing geographical conditions [7, 8]. Buildings are designed in achieving self sufficiency, meeting most of the residential amenities and needs, for a comfortable dwelling, within the building is aimed by the implementation of advent technologies by validating with on-line simulation programs. The outlines and the use of solar energy devices and rain — water harvesting technologies are primarily focussed incorporating the design aspects of proposed modular home.

2. Solar Building Technologies

The solar building technologies should possess the following constraints:

i. Sustainable architectural design

ii. Energy conservation and efficiency.

iii. Air pollution control and elimination.

iv. Environmental sustainability.

v. Solar hydrogen and power generation

vi. Recycling, Remediation and Redundancy

2.1. Environmental Sustainability

A sustainable module or unit delivers results without exhausting the major resources. The utilization of these resources turns more efficiently during operations, both in the environment and economic concept. In reality sustainability is based on the interest rather than the principle requires linkage of ecology, economy and security. The dimension of environmental sustainability addresses an attention on human activity, when it is performed or maintained indefinitely without depleting natural resources or degrading the natural environment. Remember to step-up to

• Optimization of the resource consumptions.

• Maximum usage of renewable raw materials.

• Conversion and recycling of wastes by 100%: reduction of emissions to environment.

• Elimination of toxic materials or substances

• Reduction and control of energy consumption levels.

Birth: let everybody know why

Communicating the STO is a key issue for its success: if you are able to inform people why you are doing that, they will understand and agree and they will end with considering this STO as their law.

Try to address each one of the actors with the most appropriate message:

• architects: “solar could be beautiful” or “solar is for sure beautiful, when you use it properly”

• final users:

1. “solar homes are the best where to live, for economics, environment and comfort”

2. “if you like and want solar, the right moment when to install it is when the building is under construction or refurbishment”

• building companies, designers:

1. “surplus cost is low”; provide them with simple (and correct!) figures

2. “at the same time solar homes have clear added values and they could give you competitiveness”

3. “you have the legal responsibility to comply with the law”

4. “there are checks and corresponding fees and both of them are actually and effectively working”

• Municipality staff: “our solar obligation is easy to apply”

• all the actors:

1. “our STO is easy to apply”

2. “our STO has a wide impact on reducing energy consumption and emissions in our City/Province/Region/Country”; show that you have a business plan, with clear targets and figures (emission savings, clean energy production, etc.)

3. “the building we build now will require energy for the next 50 years, so why should we rely on fossil fuels and not on clean renewable energy for the next 50 years?”

4. “this law gives you the “guaranteed right” of using clean, renewable and no-cost energy”

5. “solar thermal is the/one of the best technologies for fulfilling the obligation, given the local availability of solar resource”


Iriarte Adolfo1*, Bistoni Silvia1, Rodriguez Carlos2 and Pereyra Alejandrina1

1Grupo Energia Renovable Catamarca, INENCO — CONICET Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias — Universidad
Nacional de Catamarca — M. Quiroga 93- 4700 Catamarca — Argentina.

2 Subsecretaria de Ciencia y Tecnica, Gobierno de Catamarca, Republica 830- Catamarca

*iriarteadolfo@gmail. com


In the Province of Catamarca, Argentina, many people have no access to conventional energy sources at reasonable costs. Moreover this province is characterized by a high solar radiation level. The purpose of this work is to analyze the transference of solar cooking devices. The work was developed in two locations with different characteristics: “Los Bajos”, a marginal establishment near the capital city of the Province and Antofagasta de la Sierra Village, in the puna region of Catamarca. For the transference, a cooking set was delivered to both groups. In “Los Bajos” the transference and appropriation process was carried out en two stages. In the first stage, the social conditions were diagnosed, and the new solar cooking technology was made known. The second stage corresponds to technology adoption for productive purposes. Training workshops in Antofagasta de la Sierra Village were carried out in the school with the attendance of all the school staff, the students and their parents. Different foods were cooked. The results obtained show a significant saving in combustible expenses (gas and firewood), which are important for family life. Moreover, the possibilities of micro enterprises allow achieving stable jobs thus improving life quality.

Keywords: solar cooking, technology transfer process

1. Introduction

In the Province of Catamarca, Argentina, many people have no access to conventional energy sources at reasonable costs. The use of wood for cooking and water heating for hygienic purposes contributes to increase wasteland, so an urgent search for alternative energy sources is necessary to improve these people’s standard of living.

High solar radiation in this zone can be used to generate thermal energy. There are different devices using this type of energy which can be incorporated into these people’s everyday life, provided an adequate transference process of this technology is developed.

Any process of transference needs to be incorporated gradually. For this purpose, the Group of Renewable Energies, Catamarca which belongs to INENCO — CONICET, together with Science and Technology Assistant Secretary’s Office of the provincial government have been developing different projects in order to improve the users’ training by means of the exchange of experiences and expectations so as to reach consented proposals of solution [1] [2] .

This work presents the transference process of community solar cooking technology carried out in two rural localities in Catamarca, the village of “Antofagasta” in Antofagasta de la Sierra county and “Los Bajos”, a settlement in San Isidro city, in Valle Viejo county.

In the village of “Antofagasta” — situated in the upper region of the county, the solar systems installation has the purpose of avoiding the use of the scarce vegetation as energy source and of diminishing the use of wood from the lower regions. The intention is to show the advantages of the solar technology and to spread its use multiplying the diffusion process.

In “Los Bajos”, the experience is related to the solar technology application for cooking meals which allows six families in a very vulnerable situation to find working opportunities in order to achieve sustainability for their survival and for everyday activities such as personal cleanliness, house cleaning and food cooking.

This work was developed as part of the project “Solar energy for productive micro enterprises in rural zones as a contribution for local sustainability”, financed by the National Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.

Improved Still

Three improved solar stills were presented to the students in the Drafting class. The students were responsible for further research into solar still construction and were required to prepare detailed drawings for the construction of their design. A 1m2 collection area and a deeper basin containing sponge cubes were included in all the designs. The water depth could be controlled in two of these designs, while the cascading steps of the third design prevented water depth control. The cascading step design was chosen to decrease the volume of air between the seawater and glass covering. To

provide an insulation barrier to the perimeter of the water layer, each step was insulated on the lateral sides and underneath by a layer of coconut fibers covered by stucco reinforced with wire mesh. The entire interior of the still is finished with asphalt paint. The distilled water is also collected in the same manner as the prototype.

Подпись: Fig. 3. Flat-plate collector connected to improved solar still

Due to time constraints, only one still — the three step design — was selected for construction. Among design changes for the second pilot model, a flat-plate collector was added to preheat the input seawater. Sponges were added, to test research performed by Bassam Abu-Hijleh in 2002, in which the use of sponge cubes increased the amount of distilled water by 18% to 273% depending on the variables used [i. e. the water salinity: ‘fresh water, brackish water or saltwater’; water depth, and length of sponge cube].5 See figure 3 that shows the improved solar still system. Sponge cubes increase the surface area for distillation, and the porosity of the sponges’ aids in the evaporation rate. From Bassam’s conclusions these design considerations are not viable for seawater due to its high density, but could be useful in saltwater-infused groundwater [brackish water]. Current advances in solar distillation incorporate the use of membranes. These designs were also researched but not pursued because of the lack of PTFE membrane material in the market place.

Financing for the project continuation was provided by the Luxembourg Cooperation, which also supports the Technical Schools in Cape Verde. The 12th grade Civil Construction students built the improved solar still during the final trimester of the 2007/2008 school year.

The system consists of a seawater reservoir, a constant head tank, a solar flat-plate collector and the solar still. The cost for the entire system was 28,500 CVE [approximately 380USD], including the formwork and reservoir costs 6,200 CVE [~83USD].

The subject in own didactic activity

This group of statements was designed to assess the state of art regarding the implementation of renewable energy subject in the didactic activity at micro level, which is the classroom level. The statements included here: (1) “I teach topics related to renewable Energy during my courses” and (2) “I have knowledge and competencies for teaching in the field of renewable energy” obtained low scores (close to the average), proving the fact that the subject is not highly approached in the scholar curricula. The highest scores were obtained by Germany and the lowest for Greece and Poland. It is also to be mentioned that the teachers having scientific and technical background had positive answers, but the ones teaching “humanities” had only negative appreciations.

The concept of sustainability is directed in three major fields, i. e., cultural, economical/technical and ecological, thus it can be inferred that this concept is less approached in pre-university schools.

b. The place of the subject in the curriculum

In order to get understanding on the state of art of the implementation of “renewable energy” topic, the teachers’ opinion about the place and the existence of this subject in the curriculum at national and at local level was asked. The respondents agreed the cross-curricular character of the subject. It is clear that the subject is not part of the curriculum at national or school level. A rather high number of respondents were not able to answer, this proving the lack of knowledge about the domain.

Considering the distribution by countries, here is to be mentioned the only case of Germany where the subject was declared as part of the school curriculum.

The current monitoring situation for solar thermal energy

1.1. Definitions

Eurostat and IEA see solar thermal heat as renewable energy. Their definition of renewable energy is: “Renewable energy is energy that is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly.” There are various forms of renewable energy, deriving directly or indirectly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. They include energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, ambient heat, hydropower and ocean resources, solid biomass, biogas and liquid biofuels. Waste is a fuel consisting of many materials coming from combustible industrial, institutional, hospital and household wastes such as rubber, plastics, waste fossil oils and other similar commodities. It is either solid or liquid in form, renewable or non-renewable, biodegradable or non-biodegradable. Waste is in general partly renewable and partly non­renewable.

Heat is in general the result of a conversion of an energy source into heat. If the source is renewable, the heat output is renewable heat. This is shown in the figure [6,7]

Useful renewable heat output

Electricity or other energy carrier

Renewable heat can be defined on the input site or on the output site. The input definition is in line with the Eurostat energy balances. The output will be called “Useful heat output”. Eurostat counts all renewable on the input site. Solar thermal heat is according to the input method from Eurostat:

“The Solar thermal production is the heat available to the heat transfer medium minus the optical and collector heat losses”. In general solar thermal experts give figures on the output of the solar thermal systems or energy saved by the solar thermal systems. Some countries use nationally the substitution method (specifically the Netherlands, Germany and France). This method calculates the fossil energy that is saved by the use of a renewable source. The Therra proposal for a

calculation method does not include the use of such a substitution method since this method would be too complicated for energy statistics on a European scale.

Key Physical Characteristics of Case Studies

2.1 Solar and Non-solar tower blocks, Gorbals

The 23-storey ‘solar’ tower block has been retrofitted as such, with unheated glazed spaces buffering generously glazed, east or west facing living rooms, since 2003. Originally completed in 1958, the blocks underwent an earlier phase of upgrade in the mid-1990s, with insulation, for example, lowering U-values of the solid parts of window facades from 0.99 to 0.51 W/m2K. The 21st C improvements included further insulation taking these external walls to a U-value of 0.23 W/m2K, in addition to window replacement. The ratio of glass (i. e. excluding window frames) to floor area in living rooms is 41.6%; while that for the sunspaces is 130%. However, the additional outer layer of double-glazing, together with the 1.2 m projection of the floor slab and low ceiling height of 2.3 m, does have a significant impact on sunlight penetrating the window aperture. Heating was also upgraded in 2003 with a traditional ‘wet’ system of delivery by radiators, supplied by communal gas boilers. Total energy costs for gas and electricity were estimated to average typically circa £10 per week for two and three-roomed flats, noting that all such estimates will have risen since the time of surveying, mainly during 2006.

The ‘non-solar’ tower, again 23-storeys, constructed in a similar heavy concrete system to the solar one in 1970-73, belongs to an era of greater financial stringency and has a mix of one, three and four-roomed flats on each floor. There were no open balconies for conversion to sunspaces, and living room window areas are some three times more modest, the ratio of glass to floor area reduced to 13.7% (one third of the solar %). Again windows face due east or west, and although, in compensation, there are no projecting slabs to shade these apertures, living room depth has increased from circa 4.2 m in the ‘solar’ case to 5.5 m ‘non-solar’. The U-value of walls, a dense pre-cast concrete ‘sandwich’ with 25 mm of expanded polystyrene insulation, is estimated to be 0.78 W/m2K; while original single-glazed windows were replaced with double-glazed uPVC ones in the late 1990s and heating is by electric storage units on a ‘heat with rent’ tariff. In this case costs for heat are estimated to be about £9 per week, plus £12.50 for electricity (total £21.50).

The urban context for both tower blocks is virtually identical, hence eliminating key differences such as local retail facilities, transport availability, views and so forth.

2.2 Solar and Non-solar medium-rise blocks — Glasgow Green and Partick

The two medium-rise case studies also have certain contextual similarities, but physical differences are more marked. The ‘solar’ block is six storeys high, with 3-room flats, and faces south on to Glasgow Green, the oldest public park in the city — a superb outlook — in an area of the city undergoing regeneration. The ‘non-solar’ block is nine storeys high (4 layers of 3-room maisonettes over ground floor flats and communal accommodation), and its main rooms face due west, looking diagonally to a sports field. — a valuable amenity. This is

in an area classed as high-amenity ‘West End’, which has a track record of sustainability over more than a century.

The solar block was a flagship housing association project for Glasgow 99, City of Architecture and Design; and is constructed to a reasonably high specification in terms of insulation, windows etc. — e. g. U-value of walls 0.23 and roof 0.16 W/m2K. The construction in this case is a steel frame, with copper-clad timber-framed walls and concrete separating floors. Like the solar tower, the ratio of glass to floor area of living room is generous without including the north-facing window — 25% (the living room is relatively narrow at 3.25 m, but unusually long at 11.0 m). In this case a direct solar gain strategy has been adopted, with a sizable ‘outdoor room’ to one side off the kitchen. Ceilings are also significantly higher than the towers or the other medium-rise block at 2.75 m. Although it has twelve flats in total, and only two of these opted into the study, it is the only example of ‘invisible’ gas heating by warm under-floor coils, as well as the only example of heat recovery, with a relatively sophisticated MVHR system serving all main spaces. Occupants estimate respective weekly heating and electricity costs to average £7.50 and £3.20.

The non-solar block was constructed in the 1960s with reinforced concrete floors and spine walls. Outer walls vary in construction — outer leaf facing brick, cavity and inner leaf brick or concrete; solid block-work and timber-framed panels; U-values varying from circa 1.0 to

1.6 W/m2K. Original windows have been replaced with double-glazed uPVC (living glass:floor 13.7%), and heating is by a mix of electric storage and non-storage appliances. On average, occupants (generally elderly) were paying £18.50 per week in winter and £ 13.00 in summer for electricity.

2.3 Quasi-solar low-rise reference blocks

A fifth quasi-solar (well oriented, with glass 28% of living room floor area) scheme has been included in this study as a further reference. It is a late-1970s (completion 1981), 3-storey version of tenement housing with flats accessed from common stairs, and all flats having either an open balcony or small private garden. The location is again within Glasgow’s ‘West End’ and the degree of permeability, enclosure and verdant landscaping secures a pleasant ‘oasis’ within its confines. Original cavity brickwork has been cavity-insulated (U-value 0.42 W/m2K), windows are now double-glazed with uPVC frames and heating is by individual ‘combi’ gas boilers, with radiators in all main spaces. The weekly gas and electricity cost for a typical two-room flat for the elderly is approximately £7.50 (reflecting energy-efficiency, size and, perhaps, frugality).

African — European Partnership

PREA is a joint project between four European Universities (London Metropolitan University, UK; University of La Rochelle, France; National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, Greece;

Dortmund University of Technology) and three African Universities (University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, Uganda Martyrs University in Uganda, Witwatersrand University in South Africa), as well as the International Solar Energy Society (ISES), an international NGO, that promotes renewable energy. It aims at a joint development and implementation of coordinated Masters’ degree courses in this field that initializes the formation of a network of Southern African Higher Learning Institutions and links them with an already existing European network (TAREB) in which Dortmund University of Technology already participates together with six other European Higher Learning Institutions, three of which are also named above as participating in the PREA project. The Masters’ courses are to be preceded by, and later to run parallel with a series of Workshops, in order to sensitize African government policy makers, decision makers and implementers, regulatory agencies and senior members of academic institutions about energy efficiency (EE) and application of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in buildings, as a way of fighting poverty and saving the environment at the same time.

This project is running for three years, during which time it is expected to have established permanent structures in form of Masters’ courses at the three African universities, which are intended to continue even after expiry of the project period (December 2008).