Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Leaflets to installers

It has been edited a leaflet for diffusion of solar cooling, in which era described the different technologies, as well as are given some useful links where to look for extra information.

2. Conclusions

Whit the project Best Result has pretended to develop the RES with different approaches: analysis of the situation by means of surveys sent to different actors on this sector; diffusion labours at two levels: for public in general and on the other hand for technicians and people already involved on this sector. CARTIF, as partner of the project, among other topics have been in charge of the solar cooling topic, falling a structure similar to the one of the whole project.

Its necessary to thanks to all the participants on the project and to the European Union, the effort done for the promotion of the renewable energies as an option for the future that allows having a cleaner environment and less contaminant processes for energy production.

References

[1] BEST RESULT (2008) Page Web: http://www. bestresult-iee. com

[2] SACE: Solar Air Conditioning in Europe. Final Report, EU Project NNE5-2001-25, 2003

[3] TRNSYS 16 Documentation. A transient Simulation Program. Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2006

[4] U. Franzke, Uwe, C. Seifert Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings, IEA Task 25, Subtask B: Design Tools and Simulation Programmes, Documentation for the SolAC Programme, Version 1.2, 2004

[5] H. M.Henning, J. Albers, Decision Scheme for the selection of the appropriate technology using solar thermal air-conditioning. Guideline document, International Energy Agency (IEA), 2004.

Support and financing

Finance was raised from the public and private sectors, including SSEG, the Scottish government and several renewable energy companies. Some companies donated equipment rather than cash. In total, a sum equivalent to approx EU20,000 was raised. This allowed a van to be purchased and equipment bought. We decided to call the van “Solar One”, because it is the first of its kind in Scotland.

2. Planning and conception

It was decided that the van should be propelled as far as possible by renewable energy. Research showed that electric propulsion was not feasible because of lack of range and lack of facilities for recharging. The best alternative was bio-diesel and this was the preferred option. Therefore a second-hand diesel van (Ford Transit) was purchased for about EU 10,000. No engine modifications were needed and the van can run on any mix of fuel from 100% bio-diesel to 100% mineral diesel. No problems have been encountered.

Design and Orientation

In the design, built-in, customized environment-friendly, zero electricity refrigerators, and built-in energy efficient lights are among the features that help to bring down energy consumption in the home while ensuring comfort levels

image115

Fig 1: Design features of Universal Home.

 

The Use of Bioclimatic Design and Strategies in IberoAmerica

S. Camelo and H. Gonsalves

INETI, Department of Renewable Energies, Campus do Lumiar do INETI, 1649-038 Lisbon, Portugal
Corresponding Author, helder. goncalves@,ineti. pt

Abstract

This paper presents an overall review and synthesis of building construction studies and activities in the field of Bioclimatic Buildings, carried by an Iberoamerican network supported by the CYTED Program. This network, include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Paraguay and Spain in a total of 14 Institutions. The main goal of this network is to improve the use of renewable in social housing programs as also to improve the design and implement bioclimatic strategies in this type of building in those countries. This project aims also to help to came closer the main actors in the field in order to set up local or national programs in social housing, putting together these actors at national level, developing ideas, projects, legislation, conferences, seminars or networks. During these three years project, an important review of building construction has been set up, discussed and presented in several main seminars (El Salvador, Mexico and two in Argentina). In this paper a national review of projects and building constructions are presented and discussed in most of these countries as also the main ideas and goals for each of the participants.

Keywords: Social buildings, renewable energies, bioclimatic design.

1. Introduction

The Project started in 2005 and was defined a base program with four main tasks: 1) survey and revision of the constructive practices, passive systems and renewable energies use, systematization of the information in order to define, for each country, the sustainable measures to be implemented; 2) thermal performance evaluation of some buildings and systems; 3) development of building guide lines; 4) dissemination actions.

In the first year the participating countries have done a considerable effort in the survey of the case studies and the results were presented in a Seminar, open to all Argentine groups, in October in San Martin de Los Andes. The main results were published in the proceedings “Bioclimatic Buildings in Iberoamerican CountriesWos Edificios Bioclimaticos en los Paises de Ibero America “ [1].

In April 2006, at El Salvador, a Seminar was undertaken on “The use of solar energy in social buildings “Uso de la Energia Solar para Viviendas y Edificios de Interes Social” and in the CYTED meeting was decided that all groups should be familiarized with buildings thermal and energetic simulation methods in order to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the social houses case studies selected. For that purpose was organized in June, at University of Sao Paulo, a Workshop in order to allow to all the network groups evaluate the thermal performance of the implementation of the corrective measures namely at the building external envelope. Three months later, at Buenos Aires, a

CYTED meeting was undertaken in order to discuss the first simulations results and to overcome the difficulties founded by each group.

In 2007 two Seminars of dissemination and technological transfer were done, one in June Mexico D. C. under the titles “Social Buildings in Iberoamerican countries’Yos Edificios de Interes Social en Ibero America” and the other in November at San Luis, in Argentina, “Buildings in the Future, Bioclimatic Strategies and Sustainability’Yos Edificios en el Futuro, Estrategias Bioclimaticas y Sustentabilidade” [2].

This year a Seminar will take place at Lisbon in next October open to all the scientific community and also the final meeting in order to make the balance of the network contribution in each participating country. The network in all countries wherever organized seminars always meant to be open to others groups and to promote and enhance discussions of these subjects.

Population universe selected

The population selected for the transference was the following:

— In the village of Antofagasta de la Sierra: students, parents and teaching staff of the N° 494 Secondary School.

— In the settlement “Los Bajos”: 36 persons with family ties sharing their habitat. They are 6 family groups with different internal structure.

1.2. Transference methodology

■ Firstly, the technicians in charge of the field work were trained to develop their activities in both locations with the purpose of giving them the necessary tools to comply with their duties, taking into account the fact that they receive the users’ comments and thus are able to suggest modifications in order to improve the devices to be transferred.

■ In the village of Antofagasta, data were collected in order to become familiar with the population practices related to the use of wood in the school and family environment so as to generate discussion about the land degradation problems and the possibility of using alternative energy sources. The technology use and maintainance was accomplished in practical ways during training workshops carried out in the school building so that the kitchen staff could work together with the technicians, thus being able to acquire skill in the different procedures.

■ In the village of Antofagasta, diffusion started in the school because the socio-cultural and educational activities of the population are concentrated in this institution. Demonstration workshops were thus conducted with the participation of the school staff during which different meals were cooked. The idea was to train the people in charge of meals preparation and, at the same time, make the students aware of the advantages of solar technology, so that they could later become multiplying diffusion agents.

■ In “Los Bajos” the time to make the technology known was connected with the life objectives of the families and with the production of symbolic representations. The changes generated were monitored so as to help the participants to take ownership of the alternative energy in their daily activities. Simultaneously, quantitative and qualitative

analyses about these daily applications were carried out. The techniques used were: participant observation, case histories, focused interviews, “leam by doing” technique and workshops to develop training related to the use, preservation and cleaning of the solar cooker. In order to obtain a collective overview, the nominal group technique was applied.

■ Later, in the same location, the emphasis was placed on the creation of three micro

enterprises for the elaboration of bakery products, handmade jams, and pickled vegetables using, mainly, the solar technology. These enterprises were proposed taking into account the participants’ previous knowledge so as to change retail sales for sustainable strategies. Monitoring and evaluation indicators were considered to measure the impact of the activities in family lives. The basic strategy for skills and capacities development and knowledge acquisition was the training by means of workshops and working spaces where family members interested in the micro enterprises were given technical support and in situ exercises. The experience was systematized for proper analysis and improvement and for eventual replicability.

The experience in both locations was developed in 18 months.

Project Execution

During the still construction and upon completion of the still, the students’ understanding of the construction process was reinforced through first-hand experience. Math problems were used that required students to interpret project plans and calculate material takeoffs thus strengthening students’ knowledge in one of their weakest subjects. The students’ knowledge of the natural physics in solar distillation was acquired during still construction and seeing the still in operation.

Students’ comprehension of solar distillation was tested at the beginning of still construction and throughout. In the practical labs, time was allotted by the teacher for the construction of the improved solar still with small groups of students. The practical lab monitors helped to manage groups of students performing project construction, increasing project involvement and building capacity.

The solar still and the solar flat-plate collector were not completed during the school year, due to difficulty in obtaining materials, as well as comprehensive senior testing at the end of the year. The improved solar still construction was completed during the summer, with the help of a few motivated students who took the initiative to come back to school to help. Distillation results are still pending.

Testing the project materials in training activities

1.1. Curriculum design

Based on the findings provided by the needs analysis, the in-service teachers’ training course curriculum, as presented in Table 1, was designed.

Table 1. Course Curriculum

Module

Lectures

(hours)

Applications

(hours)

Basics of the energy production

4

Renewable Energy Sources: solar radiation; wind; hydro; biomass; other

6

6

Solar — thermal systems

8

12

Solar PV systems

8

12

Passive solar use

2

4

Systems for Wind Energy conversion

6

8

Small Hydro Systems

4

6

Biomass

6

8

Hybrides: S/T + wind; Solar PV + Wind; S/T+ PV + Wind; Co-generation Systems:

6

6

Energy efficiency and energy saving

4

4

Environmental Management

Air, water, soil: Pollutants, Monitoring Integrated

Environment Management

8

12

(Waste) water treatment

8

12

Waste management, Waste recycling

8

12

Heating pumps and hydrogen production

6

8

Applied English Language

2

10

Novel teaching using ICT

2

10

Final project development

Final project evaluation

The sustainability concept was considered in the curriculum: technical dimension — specific modules related to renewable energy systems; ecological dimension — modules related to environment (pollution/protection, monitoring and management), and also to wastes management; cultural dimension — modules related to novel teaching methods and to the didactics required by the implementation of the subject of renewable energy in the school curriculum, also the applied English language was proposed, considering that the teachers are not native English speakers.

At the same time, the course materials were developed by the partners in the project, according to a general structure of the syllabi agreed in the partnership. Thus, it is considered that the in-service training course has a deep international character, combining the experience in different countries, and different positions in the socio-economic system.

In the Transilvania University and also in the College for Natural Sciences, sets of training kits were developed this representing important output of the SEE EU Tool project. The kits are intended to be used by student-teachers during the in-service training course, but also during the instructional activity.

The installed capacity

The collector area is a useful figure for the solar thermal experts, but it cannot be compared with the installed capacity in other fields. Therefore the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling programme, Estif and other trade associations have adopted a value of 0,7 kw/m2 as average capacity [10]. This conversion factor has been adopted by the IEA statistics department. Eurostat is considering using the same factor for their statistics. The installed collector capacity can now be compared with other technologies [9].

1.2. Monitoring of the solar thermal production

The total thermal production is in general calculated from the installed collector area. Most countries use a simple figure per square meter of collector. The IEA Solar Heating and Cooling programme has a more sophisticated method that includes the simulation of a typical solar system for each country [9]. Eurostat takes over the figures from the statistical offices in the EU-countries. They ask for the collector input as in their definition in the input-method. This is the energy falling on the collector minus the collector losses. Most countries seem to use a figure that is available in their country. In table 1 it can be seen that there is significant difference in the production per

square meter of collector. It varies from 64 to 903 kwh/m2 [8]. This difference cannot be explained by the difference in insolation or quality of the solar collector systems.

Table 1. The average output per square meter collector used in several countries, based on Eurostat data [8]

Country

kwh/m 2

EU-27

437

Belgium

408

Czech Republic

337

Denmark

363

Germany

411

Ireland

406

Greece

391

Spain

898

France

412

Italy

562

Cyprus

658

Hungary

500

Netherlands

352

Austria

352

Portugal

903

Finland

64

Sweden

185

United Kingdom

586

The ThERRA project is proposing a fixed method for calculating the collector production, based on measured data. If no measured data are available a default value can be used.

In the benchmark report of the methodology the difference with the current methods is found [11].

Analysis and Discussion

2.4.1 Relationships between sunshine availability and affectivity, stress and well-being

Further to the last comment above, it is interesting initially to test a very simple relationship — positive and negative affectivity scores (with mean averages from 1-5) as a function of the percentage of glass to living room floor area — see Fig.1; where high to low rank order of ratios is: solar tower (41.6%), quasi-solar low-rise (27.9%), solar medium-rise (25%), non­solar medium-rise (19.6%) and non-solar tower (13.7%). It should also be born in mind that the sample size for the solar and non-solar towers was respectively 16 and 12; 9 in the non­solar medium-rise block and 11 in the low-rise quasi-solar scheme; but only 2 in the solar medium-rise case. Therefore, one might reasonably have expected its graphical position to be out of kilter with other case studies, if, indeed, one could justify expectation of any logical correlation. However, this has not proved to be the case. It conforms to a distinct straight-line developing into a steep curve on the positive side, and a generally steeper curve on the negative side. The rate of steepness expresses the diminishing linkage between window size and affectivity. On the positive side, it looks as if this may occur above the 25% mark on the y-axis; while the negative side appears less defined. It may also be noted that a follow-up interview with a smaller sample (7 rather than 11) in the case of the medium-rise non-solar block, with the negative affectivity questions halved from 10 to 5, increased negativity to value of 1.51, rather than 1.25. Although this lies closer to an idealised curve, the smaller number of questions and respondents also give an indication of variability according to sample size. Similarly, with positive affectivity responses bundled down to 3 from10, the score increases to 4.14 from 3.60; in this case suggesting a steadier upward curve. In any event, although the relationships might seem overly simplistic, the results do support a

general trend for increasing positive affectivity with increasing window aperture, as well as a possible corresponding decrease in negative affectivity.

image126

Fig. 1. Positive and negativity as a function of solar aperture to living rooms

The value given to sunlight access, and its added motivational effect, together with private and communal outdoor space is summarized in Table 1. The ratings correspond reasonably well with affectivity, although some responses may reflect what is available and others what would desirably be available. It is certainly evident that respondents with good access to sunlight and access to suitable private outdoor space valued the amenity afforded.

Table 1. Value of sunshine access and private and communal outdoor space

Case study>

solar

non-solar

solar

non-solar

quasi-solar

high-rise

high-rise

medium-rise

medium-rise

low-rise

1)

4.62 (5)

3.33 (3)

5.0 (5)

3.7 (3)

4.0 (4)

2)

4.56 (5)

3.92 (5)

5.0 (5)

4.8 (5)

3.91 (4)

3)

4.56 (5)

3.92 (5)

5.0 (5)

4.8 (5)

3.91 (5)

4)

2.75 (2)

1.92 (1)

4.5 (5)

4.2 (5)

2.55 (3)

Legend: 1) value of sunlight access; 2) added motivation due to sunshine; 3) value of private outdoor space; 4) value of communal outdoor space. Note: ‘mode’ average in parenthesis

There are less clear tendencies for ‘perceived stress’ relative to solar and non-solar case studies. However, there is a clear-cut difference between the two towers — 1.24 mean score for the solar one compared with 1.88 for non-solar. The mode (most frequent score) for the solar tower was also very clearly 1.0 (signifying no perceived stress), with 13 out of 16 households scoring this way. However, both the solar and non-solar medium rise blocks also scored 1.0; and the quasi-solar reference blocks also scored low at 1.20, with 1.0 again the clear mode.

As anticipated, any relationship between well-being scores and sunshine is not evident, even though the solar tower had the lowest score of 1.57; the others being: 1.94 for the non-solar tower; 2.47 for the solar medium-rise block (small sample); 2.7 for the non-solar, medium — rise block (elderly residents); and 2.01 for the quasi-solar, low-rise blocks (elderly residents).

2.4.2 Relationships between sunshine availability and physical environmental conditions

It is generally accepted that factors such as intensity of occupancy are relevant to environmental outcomes such as indoor temperature and humidity. Social habits such as smoking are also known to influence ventilation regimes [7], but is fairly evenly spread among case studies. Table 2 summarizes the estimates of intensity of occupancy in person — hours per m3 volume.

Table 3 then gives mean, maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity (RH) in different seasons for spot readings taken in sets of living rooms and main bedrooms in each

case; while Table 4 gives the equivalent values for CO2 for different seasons, whichever is the greatest. The modest differences between solar and non-solar models in terms of temperature and relative humidity are noteworthy, suggesting that despite significant differences in terms of energy efficiency and energy costs most respondents were able to heat to a reasonable level.

Table 2. Mean occupant intensity estimates (person-hrs/m3)

Case study>

solar

non-solar

solar

non-solar

quasi-solar

high-rise

high-rise

medium-rise

medium-rise

low-rise

living room

0.75

0.90

0.15

1.33

0.60

kitchen

1.65

2.05

0.60

2.30

1.00

main bedroom

1.12

1.38

0.60

1.62

0.67

Table 3. Mean Temperatures (oC), RH (%)

Case study>

solar

non-solar

solar

non-solar

quasi-solar

high-rise

high-rise

medium-rise

medium-rise

low-rise

Winter

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp. RH

liv. mean

21.8

32.7

21.1

37.1

22.1

49.8

19.0 38.0

liv. min.

20.0

28.0

19.0

31.0

21.3

44.0

18.8 36.8

liv. max.

23.0

39.0

22.0

45.0

22.9

55.6

19.2 40.1

Spring

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp. RH

liv. mean

21.6

38.4

20.7

23.8

19.3

44.5

19.6 34.8

liv. min.

19.5

33.4

17.8

14.0

15.5

34.9

19.3 34.1

liv. max.

24.3

51.1

23.5

43.8

21.5

52.5

19.9 35.5

Winter

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp. RH

bed. mean

21.3

31.5

20.9

36.6

22.1

49.8

bed. min.

19.0

28.0

19.0

31.0

21.3

44.0

bed. max.

23.0

38.0

22.0

41.0

22.9

55.6

Spring

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp.

RH

Temp. RH

bed. mean

22.5

35.0

21.5

28.5

18.6

41.8

bed. min.

20.2

31.1

18.5

18.8

14.6

32.2

bed. max.

26.1

40.9

24.8

41.7

21.7

49.1

Table 4. Mean CO2 (ppm: acceptable range 600-825; tolerable max.1,000)

Case study>

solar

non-solar

solar

non-solar

quasi-solar

high-rise

high-rise

medium-rise

medium-rise

low-rise

liv. mean

852 Dec 05

1,066 Dec 05

945 Oct 06

1,196 Mar 06

815

liv. min.

600

730

760

740

590

liv. max.

1,370

1,670

1,130

1,830

1,200

bed. mean

776 Mar 06

1,019 Mar 06

915 Oct 06

1,033 Mar 06

bed. min.

630.0

620

720

770

bed. max.

970.0

1,380

1,110

1,710

Data in Table 4 indicate that the solar tower enjoys better air quality than the non-solar tower; and that the solar medium-rise block enjoys better air quality than the non-solar medium-rise block. There is also similarity comparing the values for the non-solar tower and the non-solar medium-rise block. Here only the minimum values fall within the range normally regarded as acceptable; the maxima are well above the threshold taken as the tolerable maximum; and the mean values are somewhat above this threshold. In the solar tower only three of sixteen flats came above this limit in their living rooms in the case of winter readings. In the case of the solar medium-rise block, the sample was too small to pass a similar comment — one of the two tenants came above the 1,000 ppm limit. This appears noteworthy given the presence of

the MVHR system. However, it was revealed during the interview that the occupant avoided using the MVHR due to a phobia about insects entering via the ducts. It is also worth noting that the CO2 readings for the quasi-solar low-rise were similar to those of the tower block. Given the respective similarities between the solar tower sample and the quasi-solar low-rise sample with respect to positive affectivity (4.42 cf. 4.67) and perceived stress (1.24 cf.1.20 with 1.0 the mode in each case), taken together with general level of energy efficiency (see

2.1 and 2.3 above) and solar access (Fig. 1), it is reasonable to posit that this may engender a fairly relaxed attitude to opening windows.

It is also of interest to note that the average temperature regimes in the solar and non-solar towers appear quite similar, as does RH; while comparing respective medium rise blocks, both RH and temperature are somewhat higher in the solar case. Durational readings, Table 5, provide a more in-depth picture of temperature and humidity, although the sample is limited.

Table 5. Temperatures (oC), RH (%) and mixing ratio (g/kg) ranges: Living Rm.

Case study>

solar

non-solar

solar

non-solar

quasi-solar

high-rise

high-rise

medium-rise

medium-rise

low-rise

temp. ‘mode’

19.5-20.5

19.5-23.5

20.5-24.5

18.5-22.7

21.5-25.0

temp. min/max

18.0-26.5

18.7-24.7

20.0-29.0

15.5-23.5

20.5-26.5

RH ‘mode’

30-52%

30-52%

33-50%

35-50%

32-52%

RH min/max

28-70%

28-60%

30-35%

30-85%

32-55%

MR %>7 g/kg

13.5%(5.7%)

97.6%(98%)

12.1 %(13.9%)

99.7%(99.7%)

15.0%(22.1%)

MR %>10 g/kg.0%(0%)

0%(22.6%)

0%(0%)

16.3%(18.1%)

©X

О

©x

о

Notes: i) Frequency of Mixing Ratio (MR) %s > 7 and 10 g/kg in parenthesis are for bedrooms; ii) ‘Mode’ in this table signifies the majority range of values, not a recurring single value

The last two rows in Table 5 are of particular significance. Although RH seems to be mainly within a reasonable range, the percentage frequency of mixing ratio of dry to moist air (MR) values above the threshold of 7 g/kg is worryingly high in the non-solar cases; especially given that there are still significant percentages above 10 g/kg. The threshold or benchmark value is used because this is the level above which it has been found that the dust mite population will readily grow [8]. The lower levels of frequency in this regard for the solar cases correspond with the better air quality. Further, it is relevant that the higher levels of ‘intensity of occupation’ (Table 2) in the non-solar cases correspond with the poorer air quality (Table 4) and higher frequency of humidity (mixing ratio) above ‘growing threshold’ for dust mites (Table 5). Table 6 summarizes presence of dampness due to condensation and/or presence of mould. Again, the non-solar housing is manifestly at a disadvantage compared with the solar, or even quasi-solar counterparts.

Table 6. Instances of presence of damp/mould

Case study>

solar

non-solar

solar

non-solar

quasi-solar

high-rise

high-rise

medium-rise

medium-rise

low-rise

windows

1 ex 16 (6%)

5 ex 12 (42%)

1 ex 2 (50%)

5 ex 7 (71%)

1 ex 11 (9%)

walls

0

5 ex 12 (42%)

0

1 ex 7 (14%)

0

clothes

0

1ex 12 (8%)

0

0

0

It is also likely that the ones with relatively high incidence of condensation and/or mould will have expressed their dissatisfaction via negative affectivity and/or perceived stress. Links to poor health or well-being are also a possibility, especially relative to the responses to questions concerning nasal ailments (33% for the non-solar tower cf. 12.5% for the solar tower).

3. Conclusions

Firstly, the analysis does support an apparent association between sunlight/energy-efficiency attributes and perceived stress and positive affectivity, particularly the latter where a logical connection could be anticipated due to questions being directed at positive emotions. For the converse reason, an association between sunlight and negative affectivity is less convincing. Causality relating to health/wellbeing is also so diverse that it was unlikely to yield any tangible association with access to sunlight. Having said that, the solar tower does have the lowest incidence of ailments. The responses relating to how much residents valued sunshine and were additionally motivated by its presence, as well as private outdoor space in the form of ‘sun-traps’, add further weight to this conclusion, aligning with the positive affectivity scores. Secondly, there is evidence of a relationship between availability of sunlight in homes and some physical environmental indicators: a) CO2, expressing air quality; b) humidity, when expressed as a percentage frequency above particular mixing ratio thresholds which in turn denote the likelihood of dust mite propagation and hence risk of asthma. The greater the solar access, the better was the air quality, and the lower were the levels of mixing ratio (MR) or vapour pressure.

Furthermore, the presence of damp or mould was greater in the non-solar case studies. Although, one might have expected such incidence to relate to general energy-efficiency and the ability to heat dwellings, there were no examples of unsuitably low temperatures during any of the periods used for monitoring (mainly winter and spring, but also some in autumn). Instead, the explanation appears to be that the more energy-efficient, and also more sunlit, homes encourage residents to be more relaxed in relation to ventilation — i. e. more inclined to open windows. It is also apparent that they are able to do this without unduly compromising economy — the solar case studies are also the cheapest to heat. It also seems likely that thermal capacity is relevant in playing a part in allowing intermittent opening of windows, without any undue energy penalty.

The evidence presented is such that the basic hypothesis appears to merit further detailed investigation. Environmental architects and engineers have for too long only been evaluating passive solar design in terms of potential energy saving rather than psychosocial benefits, that are in turn linked to wider ‘quality of life’ environmental and sustainability indicators.

References

[1] Downes A and Blunt T P, (1877). Researches on the effect of light upon bacteria and other organisms, Proceedings of the Royal Society, 26, 488-500.

[2] Garrod L P, (1944). Some observations on hospital dust with special reference to light as a hygienic safeguard, British Medical Journal Feb. 19, 245-257.

[3] Walsh et al, (2005). The effect of sunlight on postoperative medication use: a prospective study of patients undergoing spinal surgery, Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 156-163.

[4] Beauchmenin K M and Hays P, (1996). Sunny rooms expedite recovery from severe and refractory depressions, Journal of Affective Disorders, 40, 49-51.

[5] Beauchmenin K M and Hays P, (1998). Dying in the dark: sunshine, gender and outcomes in myocardial infarction, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 91, July, 352-354.

[6] Gibson J J, (1966). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, Greenwood Press, USA.

[7] Ho H M, (1995). User-performance sensitivity of small sunspaces in a Scottish housing context, PhD Thesis, Mackintosh School of Architecture, University of Glasgow, UK

[8] Platts-Mills T and De Weck A, (1989). Dust mite allergens and asthma — a worldwide problem. In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, (83), 416-427.

Master Degree Courses

Masters courses are to be introduced at the three African Universities in the PREA project for capacity building in education and training and to promote sustainability concepts in the design, construction and occupancy of buildings. The long term target is to train academicians for more research and further propagation of these ideas and concepts in subsequent courses even after the end of the project’s scheduled time of three years. The aim is to eventually spread these ideas and concepts throughout the entire continent, by cooperation of the three African Universities and by networking with other African institutions engaged in this area.

The masters courses are supposed to use the expertise gained on a similar project in Europe called TAREB (Teaching about Renewable Energy in Buildings) but will be tailored to suit the local environment and to reflect specific demands of the country in which they are offered and taught as well as the technologies that can be easily made available there. The Masters programs will generally have some compulsory core modules and optional specialist modules some of which will be tailored to reflect local demands.

At Uganda Martyrs University, the Masters’ course is planned to be introduced in phases step by step. According to Mark Olweny, the assistant Dean of Faculty of Building and Technology, who is also the local PREA project coordinator there, the project would be phased in, in two steps starting with a Graduate Diploma in Environmental Design to run either as a one year full-time course or as a two year part-time course. The part-time program, 50% of which can be taken in form of off-campus modules, is to be aimed at applicants possessing the equivalent of the basic three-year undergraduate program currently run by the same University as Bachelor of Science in Building Design and Technology (B. Sc. BDT). The second phase will be the actual Masters program will be called Master of Environmental Design (M. Sc. ED). It will consist of specialist modules and will be aimed at professionals who have either completed the full five years Bachelor of Architecture course or have upgraded their basic three year course with the Graduate Diploma. Some people with other professional qualifications e. g. in Engineering, Urban Design or Quantity Surveying will also be eligible to apply directly for the one year full-time Masters. Basic concepts in environmental design, will already have been introduced at undergraduate level, will develop students’ interest in this area and serve as a “catchment area” for students and professionals.

The new Masters course at Witwatersrand University (WITS) will aim at both students and professionals. According to plans already under way at WITS, the Masters course will be associated with four separate postgraduate activities namely organization of short open certificate courses and modules in collaboration with other institutions such as Stellenbosch University, establishing new “Continuing Professional Development” (CPD) courses for established professionals, incorporation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy research into existing Masters and PhD work by research and thesis, as well as introduction of taught modules into Bachelor of Architectural Sciences (BAS(HONS)). There will be two masters versions namely the Professional Masters of Architecture (M. ARCH(PROF)) and the Master of Architecture specializing in Housing (M. ARCH(HOUS)). As an unexpected opportunity the PREA project coordinator at WITS, Daniel Irurah, was requested to develop a teaching module on Renewable Energy, in the process of establishing of a new Master of Philosophy (M. Phil) on Renewable Energy due to start at Stellenbosch University later this year (July

2007). PREA has been identified as one of the key strengths of WITS in its collaboration efforts with other institutions in South Africa.

Dar es Salaam University has established in co-operation with Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, the new Master course “Renewable Energy”, which will start for the first time in September 2008. It has all the necessary manpower and teaching facilities for the course to be able to take off this year. Existing departments which are ready to collaborate in establishing the new Masters course include from University of Dar es Salaam Faculty of Civil Engineering and the Built Environment, the Department of Energy in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering and the Department of Electrical Power in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology and from Ardhi University Department of Architecture in the Faculty of Architecture and Planning (FAP).

2. Results / Discussion

After 30 months of the three-year-project have passed there could be reached most of the targets and many things were achieved that would not have happened without PREA:

• Initially three universities in sub-Saharan Africa have decided to implement masters courses in the area of renewable energies energy and energy efficient buildings during the project duration. Meanwhile the number of universities has increased to 5 by Ardhi University joining University of Dar es Salaam, and Sustainability Institute from Stellenbosch University joining Witwatersrand University.

• Six workshops about sustainable energy supply and about low cost and high comfort buildings have been carried out with active participation of key actors from the three African countries..

• The network of African institutions working in the areas of energy and building could be improved, last not least by the website www. ises. org/PREA.

Thus the PREA Project has already proved to be an important event in the development of energy consciousness in Africa. The response to the Workshops has been extremely good. The questionnaires given to both participants and organizers show, that people concerned are very satisfied with the stages and milestones that have been reached so far. Project websites (shown hereunder) have been established, Workshop handbooks with all the papers presented at Workshops have been published and distributed to workshop participants and other interested parties, a CD summarizing all activities has been developed and as requested by the European Commission, a PowerPoint presentation containing “publishable summary slides” has been produced and updated. The most important fact however is that through this PREA project, the issue of energy efficiency and renewable energy in buildings in Africa has obtained a forum through which it will be more specifically and efficiently addressed within an integrated building design and construction approach. Moreover, African universities have had a unique opportunity at South-South collaboration among each other and South — North collaboration with their European counterparts.

3. Conclusions

The PREA project, although scheduled to run for three years, is meant to have a long lasting impact in the development of a new energy consciousness in Africa. It has carried out six Workshops successfully, sensitizing African governments’ officials, policy makers, decision makers and implementers as well as regulatory agencies about the importance of energy efficiency and application of renewable energy technologies in buildings as a way of fighting poverty and at the same time

preserving the environment for posterity. In short the PREA project is a catalyst for sustainable development and poverty eradication in Africa. It will help Africa achieve some of the millennium development goals sooner rather than later. The implementation of the masters courses at the three African universities has started a sustainable development.

4. Acknowledgement

The European Union supported 50% of the PREA budget through their program Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE), subprogram. The German International Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) financially supported Dortmund University by matching funds. The other European partner universities and ISES, are meeting their share of the budget from their own resources. Contributions of the African University partners were realized in form of local organization of the seminars and arrangements for accommodating the Masters’ programs. The Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA), Johannesburg, and the Sustainability Institute, Stellenbosch University, kindly made their premises available for the South African Workshops.

References

Websites:

Websites associated with the PREA projects have been established by ISES and by the other project participant universities.

http://cms. ises. om/index. xsp

http://www. ises. org/PREA

http://www. bauwesen. tu-dortmund. de/ka/Homepage PREA/Deutsch/Home D/HOME PREA D. htm

http://hermes. wits. ac. za/www/Conferences/PREA-WITS

http://grbes. phys .uoa. gr/prea/index. htm

http://www. univ-lr. fr/poles/sciences/formations/gc/master afrique. html

http://www. sonnenseite. com/index. php? pageID=80&news:oid=n6416&svnlink:docID=&svnlink:linkI D=1&template=news detail. html