Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Solar cooling in the German funding program. SOLARTHERMIE 2000plus

Edo Wiemken, Alexander Morgenstern

Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrafle 2, 79110 Freiburg

edo. wiemken@ise. fraunhofer. de


The federal Programme SOLARTHERMIE 2000plus, launched by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, provides funds for solar thermally assisted pilot and demonstration applications with collector areas of usually above 100 m2 The fields of application include solar cooling and air-conditioning as well; in this application field, Fraunhofer ISE is performing accompanying research for demonstration plants. This contribution provides brief information on the status of solar cooling within Solarthermie 2000plus and on three installations already in operation or being installed in late summer 2008 respectively; covering the wide capacity range from 40 m2 collector area in a small size system with 10 kW chiller capacity up to 1218 m2 collector area for thermal support of a 1 MW chilling capacity plant. These first three installations will use pure water as collector fluid in combination with vacuum tube collectors.

Keywords: EuroSun 2008, Solarthermie 2000plus, solar cooling, solar air-conditioning

1. Introduction

The interest in solar thermally driven cooling and air-conditioning is rising, since it allows for a de­crease in the use of primary energy for cooling and for an optimised utilisation of the solar thermal collector system. A description of the technologies is given e. g. in [1], [2]. [3]. Although the realised plants in generally have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality, some of them have also pointed to shortcomings, obstructing a braod dissemination of solar cooling so far. These obstructions are related to economic issues and to an adequate know-how in planning and installation.

To overcome the shortcomings from the past and to assess the application potential of new concepts, different projects were established on an international and national level. Examples on international projects are listed in [4]. On base cost figures from systems installed some years ago, the cost situation and the market opportunity for solar cooling was analysed within the project ROCOCO, supported by the European Commission [5]. However, in the recent years the market situation has changed, since thermally driven chillers in the small capacity range (< 20 kW chilling capacity) have entered the mar­ket or are close to market introduction [6], applicable with solar thermal heat production. This develop­ment has considerably extended the application field of solar cooling.

On a national level, the demonstration of system technology is a central objective of the programme Solarthermie 2000plus [7], launched by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. The programme provides funds for solar thermally assisted pilot and

demonstration applications with collector areas of usually above 100 m2, the funding of smaller applications is subject on the system concept. Areas of application are heating support, district heating support, process heating and solar cooling and air-conditioning. For the latter field of application, Fraunhofer ISE is responsible for accompanying research of the demonstration plants in this funding scheme. The accompanying research comprises mainly the areas

— Decision support to the Project Management Organisation Jtilich (PtJ) in the selection phase of the proposals in order to ensure a high quality of the installations and to estimate the environmental benefits of the systems;

— Support in the project pre-planning phase: possible improvements in the hydraulic scheme and in the integration of the cooling system and of the solar thermal system into the overall system;

— Evaluation of the monitored system data to assess the energetic performance and to identify weak points in the system control and to allow a comparative assessment of the installed plants;

— Dissemination activities;

— Participation at Task 38 Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) of the IEA.

Figure 1 provides a general overview of the organisation structure of Solarthermie 2000plus, and fi­gure 2 shows the activities within the accompanying research for solar cooling demonstration plants.

Renewable energy equipment

It was decided that the van should show a wide range of renewable equipment, but focussing on solar energy. Thus we wished to showcase solar heating, solar PV, small wind and bio­diesel. Other renewables would be publicised by carrying literature.


Orientation of Building

Maximum solar radiation is interrupted by the roof (horizontal surface) followed by the east and west walls and then the north wall during the summer period, when the south oriented wall receives minimum radiation. It is desirable that the building is oriented with the longest walls facing north and south, so that only short walls face east and west. Thus only the smallest wall areas are exposed to intense morning and evening sun.

3.3. Building Materials

Подпись: Fig 2: Typical modular house design

The materials used are stone and mud bricks that reduce carbon emission through savings on resources and embodied energies. The slab is of filler slabs, incorporating clay tiles, to save the amount of steel and cement used. External walls are built using soil-stabilized mud and laterite blocks and finishing treated with fine waterproof coating. This ensures that surfaces are non-adorable, need no external paint applications and are thermally efficient. Rubber wood, a non-forest timber, is used for door shutters and as flooring. The internal doors are of compressed coir door panels for the door shutters. These are local resources that use less energy to produce, reducing carbon emissions.

2. Studies cases

2.1. Framework

Although with the common objective of promoting the energies renewable and bioclimatic strategies in social housings, the great diversity of the social and economical conditions of each participating country of the CYTED network, determined that different approaches, criteria and methodologies were adopted in order to correspond to the real needs, of each country, as it can be conclude from the overall review and synthesis of the present paper.

2.2. Argentina

Three groups from Argentina integrate this network — Universities of Catamarca, Salta and Tucuman. The first two were involved in 2005 in the definition of bioclimatic strategies for high quality plant production in agro industrial installations. It was an experimental and numerical study with measurements on temperature, solar radiation temperature and humidity and simulation based on SIMEDIF program. The measurements were used to calibrate the thermal model [1].

Подпись: Fig. 1. Bioclimatic house and temperature

In 2007 was undertaken a pos occupation evaluation to some bioclimatic houses built in 1986 and that have been monitored. The survey on user satisfaction shows that the occupants are very pleased with the bioclimatic design as well as the solar collectors to domestic hot water production, and that they are much familiarized with the use of the passive solar systems. This familiarization is due to the initial training for the operation of the systems [2].


Fig. 2. Bioclimatic buildings in Argentina (Cachi-Salta and Susques-Jujuy).

The Tucuman University had undertaken a thermal energetic efficiency analysis of raw hearth construction in order to be adopted in popular rural houses and on the spaces for cooking in order to avoid the deforestation and minimize the occurrence of domestic accidents. Concerning the urban population the study was performed in San Miguel, east zone of Tucuman. The SIMEDIF program was also used to evaluate the improvement of two houses by using bioclimatic design, a rural house at Balderrama and the other at Colalao, Tucuman Valley [2].


Fig. 3. Balderrama house and ceiling improvement proposal.


Fig. 4. Bioclimatic building in Chubut — Argentina.

Equipment used

A solar cooking kit, Fig. 2, composed by:

a) a box-like solar cooker (tank cooker)

b) a 2 m-diameter assembler on which a stove or a 20 liter-saucepan is placed. The stove is an iron

angled box 0.32 m high, 0.32m wide and 0.35 m deep. It has double-glass sides and four slides for


c) a 1.5 m-range assembler with a 10liter-saucepan on its focus.

d) Подпись:
a highly efficient wood heater.

In Table 1, the average use of wood for daily cooking during March is shown. It can be observed that the greatest wood consumption is associated to the preparation of bread; for this reason, greater emphasis was placed on the training and stimulation for the use of the cooker assembler.

Table 1. Use of wood for food cooking

Type of cooking

Weekly use of wood (kg)

Use of wood per person/day (kg)







Afternoon snacks









Table 2 shows the time spent in March for cooking some of the meals recommended by the participating teachers of the school and using only the solar cookers. Both assemblers were used simultaneously in order to take advantage of the hours with most radiation; so, while one group was baking bread, the other was preparing some other meal or heating water for cooking later or

for cleaning the cooking elements.

Table 2. Time spent with solar cooker to cook food

Type of food

Quantity for each baking or

cooking Time spent


(hour : min)

Home-made bread

3 kg


Steaks in frying pan

0.5 kg lamb meat


Pumpkin jam

4 kg



3 dozens (baked) 1 dozens (fried)



Rice stew

40 liters


The training workshops, Fig. 3, with the participation of the school staff, students and parents — were programmed every two months, and each lasted one week. During the workshops, both assemblers were used simultaneously to take advantage of the greater radiation hours; therefore, while one group was baking bread, the other was cooking some other meal or heating water for later cooking or for cleaning the cooking elements.


Fig. 3. Training workshops in the school N° 494

After the workshops, the equipment used was left in the school with recommendations about the use as a way to detect possible problems during the adoption of this kind of technology. The report presented by one of the teachers shows that the transference was very efficient, provided there are people within the community who are able to assess by themselves the advantages to be obtained with the use of the new devices: “•without the solar modules, the school used one 45kg gas cylinder per week. By using the solar modules and wood heater to have hot water for breakfast, lunch and snacks, we have saved the money used for buying an average of two gas cylinders a month. In the solar module, an average of 80 liters of water can be heated for lunch and snacks.”

Project Publicity

The publicity that the project received on the news, the short video clip prepared showing the prototype construction rwww. youtube. com/v/hV99eXdMMC8&rel=1l. radio interviews and visits from local leaders including the Prime Minister will help to cement the project’s role within the educational system. The project continuation should not lose track of the school’s primary function as an educational institution by not turning it into a production center of projects.

3. Conclusion

The solar still did not produce the necessary amount of water to meet a person’s water needs. It did however teach students about solar distillation technology and increase their motivation to learn and give valuable insight into better design ideas. During the coming year the new model will be tested to obtain production results and continuing research to perfect the design. The next step to reinforce the solar still project is a teacher training so that the project can be continued at the Escola Tecnica.

Further development can lead to partnerships with the Forma^ao Profissional e Centro de Emprego [Professional Training and Employment Center; ‘Business Centers’] to implement the project. The Business Centers are focused on teaching trades and incorporate a work study. The end result would be a fortified educational system through environmentally sustainable projects. Increasing employment opportunities for Cape Verdean technical education graduates. while perfecting a cheap environmental way to produce potable water. reducing reliance on expensive. polluting foreign oil and dwindling subsoil resources.


[1] Cape Verde Fact Sheet. www. cia. gov/librarv/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cv. html

[2] Diagnostico do sector de agua e saneamento em Cabo Verde. (2007). INGRH. Praia. Cabo Verde

[3] Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia em Cabo Verde

[4] F. Daniels, (1964). Direct Use of the Sun’s Energy, Yale University, New Haven

[5] Bassam A/K Abu Hijleh, Hamzeh M. Rababa’h, Experimental study of a solar still with sponge cubes in basin, Deparment of Mechanial Engineering. Jordan University of Science and Technology. 2002.

With an average of 7cm of annual rainfall, Cape Verde is classified as a semi-desert climate and constantly faces drought. Its main sources of fresh water are desalination plants and deep wells, which provided approximately 20% and 80%, respectively in 2000; extrapolated from the CIA fact sheet on Cape Verde1 and Cape Verde’s Water and Sanitation report. The annual rainfall is not sufficient to recharge the water table to meet the nation’s growing water needs. Thus farmers in coastal areas complain of saltwater infiltrating the ground water and ruining their crops yields. The Water and Sanitation Diagnostic Report for Cape Verde states that 85% of the population has secure access to water and 15% have precarious access to water; for rural habitants this value is 22.6% compared to 7% for urban habitants.2 While fuel powered desalination plants are effective producing 2 million to 10 million litres of fresh water per day in Cape Verde, the energy costs are colossal, solar stills could provide a more secure source of fresh water for rural habitants.

Nevertheless, Cape Verde is abundant in sun and saltwater. It receives approximately 3,000 hours of sunlight annually (receiving a maximum of 5.90 kWh and a minimum of 4 kWh of solar radiation3) and boasts 965 km of coastline, which facilitates salt water collection. In light of dwindling underground

[1] CO2 emissions avoided:

1. Ireland: 27,000 t/year (estimated)

[2] English web sites are very rare, but all are available in Russian

[3] An advanced TRNSYS-Type for uncovered collector is described in [4]

[4] The world’s currently largest solar thermal system in Marstall, Denmark, has an installed thermal capacity of approx. 13 MWth.

[5] Assumptions: solar energy gain = 1 MWh/m2a; efficiency heat plant = 0.9.

[6] including transport, installation, etc. but excluding Kyrgyz duty and taxes

[7] Without recognition as a CDM project

5. Conclusion

The contents and main features of a new Training Course for PV System Installation are presented. The course, targeting professional electricians, has a strong component of hands-on experience and includes a full discussion of safety issues. Its general aims are i) to prepare the participants for the installation of PV systems; and to ii) set a quality standard for other training courses expected to be organized in the future.


[9] Greenpro (2004) Energia fotovoltaica : manual sobre tecnologias, projectos e instalagao

[10] J. Wiles, (2005). Photovoltaic Power Systems and the 2005 National Electrical Code: Suggested Practices, Sandia National Laboratories

[11] Daystar Inc. Working safely with photovoltaic systems, Sandia Laboratory — Photovoltaic Design Assistance Center (no date)

[12] M. C. Brito et al, Manual do instalador, to be published

[13] “A Strategic Research Agenda for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Technology”, Science, Technology and Applications of the EU PV Technology Platform, European Communities, 2007.

[14] Carrilho da Graga G., Augusto A., Lerer M., “Integration of Photovoltaic Panels in Portuguese High Schools: Feasibility Study”, Eurosun 2008.

[15] Portuguese law 363/2007, Lisbon, Portugal, 2007.

[16] Eletrobras — Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras

[17] GREEN — Energy Studies Group


PUC-MG — Pontific Catholic University of Minas Gerais

[19] PROCEL — National Electricity Conservation Program

[20] Introduction

Testing course modules

Подпись: Fig. 2. Modules testing with high-school teachers.

In order to assess the curriculum, and get the feed back from the teachers-trainees, testing sessions were proposed. Thus, the first form of the materials was tested in Brasov (Fig. 2), in June 2007 with high-school teachers from Turkey (11 persons, having different backgrounds: technical, scientific, humanities) and Romania (6 persons, having scientific and technical background), who were selected by the two school inspectorates. The lectures were delivered by teachers from Transilvania University of Brasov and College for Natural Sciences, Brasov. Seven modules of the in-service course were, thus, assessed: Fundamentals of energy production, Solar-thermal systems, Photovoltaic systems, Wind systems, Micro-hydro systems, Waste management, Waste water treatment.

The trainees were involved in several types of activities: traditional lectures, where the new scientific content was presented; in experimental sessions — they were involved in real active learning activities in laboratories from Transilvania University, focusing on renewable energy systems; project-based learning sessions — each teacher had to propose a lesson plan meant to design the appropriate learning environment dedicated to the knowledge and skills acquisition in the field of renewable energy, in the

frame of the own taught discipline. All the teachers positively appreciated the entire course;

The topics approached by the teachers were related to: wind energy systems, photovoltaic systems, solar-thermal systems, environment pollution. All the plans approached the traditional instructional method: teacher delivering the content, students trying to acquire the new content, followed by an evaluation sessions. No experimental activities were proposed, and the reason for this was the lack of experimental devices in their schools. Teachers mentioned that the subjects they proposed were new; they don’t have the opportunity to integrate them in their curriculum, but they can further introduce them in the quotidian instructional activity to provide contextual learning for the “normal” topics in the school curricula.

Thus, the modules testing revealed a strong need of appropriate teaching aids — a combination of a teaching manual, eLearning tools and practical kits.

The testing of the full course was performed in Transilvania University, between the 1st of November 2007 and the 30th of May 2008. A number of 18 high-school teachers (Technical, Physics and Chemistry background) from Brasov and Covasna counties attended the course, while the lecturers were given by teachers from four of the partners’ countries (Belgium, Greece, Germany, and Romania). The teachers were involved in the same type of instructional activities as the first group: traditional, experimental, project-based activity. The attendees’ final project is targeting the development of a project meant to introduce the topic of renewable energy in the pre-university curriculum. Their proposals are oriented in three directions:

• Topic of “renewables” as context for the subject in the existing curricula. For example, in scholar chemistry curricula, there is the “hydrogen”, “water” topic. For teaching this topic, the Chemistry teachers proposed problem-based activities focusing on Hydrogen Technology. The students are expected to understand the implementation of Hydrogen Technology with its advantages and disadvantages;

• Topic of “renewables” as specific subject in the existing curricula. For example, the Physics teachers proposed the “energy” topic to be presented in a new format, focusing on “renewables”;

• New topics in the curriculum. The pre-university curriculum offers the opportunity to propose new disciplines at the school decision. Thus, the teachers proposed in each area of the curriculum (Sciences and Technical areas) new disciplines, such as: “Energy Efficient House” (problem-based approach as teaching method), “Environmental pollution” (proposed by Chemistry teachers), “Energy and Environment” (multi-disciplinary approach among Physics, Chemistry, Geography teachers).

The real implementation of the teachers’ proposals will be in the 2008/2009 academic year and the results are expected in several years.

There are more opening expected: in the Transilvania University is running, starting with the academic year 2007/2008 the B. Sc. program Engineering of Renewable Energy Systems (4 years) already well attended by students. Preparing the teachers, in the high-schools, for teaching on renewables is expected to lead to a further increase in the pupils’ interest for further studying in this field. The B. Sc. course can be followed by the M. Sc. course Engineering Design and Management of Renewable Energy Systems (running starting with 2003) and various Ph. D. programmes in the Centre Product

Подпись: Developing Education and Training on Renewables Fig. 3. Integrated education and training lines in the Centre Product Design for Sustainable Development 4. Conclusions
Design for Sustainable Development. Thus the development of a complete education and training line is offered, addressing different levels of competence form a broad range of target groups.

The SEE EU Tool project provides an European frame for teachers’ in-service training on sustainable energy, mainly on renewable energy systems.

During the SEE EU Tool project a complex training kit for teachers in-service training have been developed in the partnership. The training kit contains: a course, teaching materials (containing content and teaching aids), experimental devices (and the suggested teaching aids).

The teachers from pre-university educational system are willing to participate at training courses in this field and they consider being very important for themselves and consequently for their students.

The need for adapting the curriculum and the course to the teachers’ competences and to the pupils’ level is fulfilled by a harmonized cooperation between the project partnership and the testing group — teachers from the partner countries.

After completing the course, the teachers found many opportunities to introduce the topic of renewable energy systems in the scholar curricula.

The course is integrated in a complete education and training line on renewables, developed in the Transilvania University of Brasov, the Centre Product Design for Sustainable Development.


[1] Environmental Education Materials: Guidelines for Excellence Workbook — Bridging Theory and Practice, North American Association for Enviornmental Education, 2000.

[2] G. Steiner, A. Posch Journal of Cleaner Production, 14 (2006), pp. 877-890.

[3] SEE EU Tool project website http://www. unitbv. ro/Default. aspx? tabid=561

[4] I. Visa, A. Duta, D. Perniu, International Conference on Trends in Environmental Education, EnvEdu (2006), Brasov, Romania

The proposed method in the ThERRA project

1.3. What is the energy production?

In 3.1 the difference between the input and output method is shown. This gives a large difference in the figures. An example for the Netherlands shows the following figures:

Global insolation: 3.6 GJ/m2/year

Insolation under optimum angle 4.0 GJ/m2/year

Collector output 2.0 GJ/m2/year (assuming 50% average collector efficiency)

System output 1.0 GJ/m2/year (average for 120 measured systems)

Energy saved 1.5 GJ/m2/year (65% efficiency for a reference hot water system)

It shows that the production of solar thermal systems varies between 4.0 GJ/m2/yr (1111 kwh) and 1.0 GJ/m2/yr (278 kwh) if you vary between the input method and the output method.

To make the figures independent of the insolation a formula was proposed by Jan Erik Nielsen from Estif.

E = C * A [m2] * G [GJ/m2]

C = a coefficient dependant on the application.

A = average installed collector area in the monitoring year.

G = the global radiation for the optimal collector orientation for the monitoring year.

For the input method a coefficient of 80% was proposed in 2007, but new information shows that this would be considered too high. It would be logical to take the average collector area for the typical application. For glazed collectors and hot water systems the coefficient would be around 0.50.

For the output method the coefficient can be calculated from monitoring data. Examples from the Therra monitoring project are [12]:

Output coefficient C:

The Netherlands: 0,25 (50 systems)

France: 0,29 (large systems)

France 0,14 (120 small systems)

There is a large difference in the performance. Especially large systems show a lower performance (but a higher solar fraction). More monitoring data should be analysed before an average default value can be given.

The potential for BIPV Product Development and Entrepreneurship in Portugal Evidence from the International Design Competition Lisbon Ideas Challenge

Joana Miguel Fernandes

IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research/Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa Corresponding Author, iomifernandes@gmail. com


Of the available portfolio of renewable energy technologies, solar photovoltaic materials, mainly due to their flexibility pasterns both in form and function, present exceptional properties for the application in the built environment, specially integrated in urban structures. The potential for the development of innovative urban structures integrating photovoltaic materials, namely by triggering entrepreneurial behaviours in actors that are usually "passive" users of the technology is the aim of this work. Among others, design teams are addressed as “users as innovators”, effective sources of innovation, in order to increase the creation of design inspired innovative products. The term “users” should in this sense be understood broadly to include those actors that use the technology in their daily practice and not only true end-users or beneficiaries of the technology. Acknowledging the importance of competitions as vehicles for the promotion and dissemination of new technologies, a preliminary assessment of the potential of Portuguese users to develop new products was conducted using as a testing ground an international design competition. Results showed a very positive response from the Portuguese public, even if there has been little or no previous contact with this technology. Even if taken restrictively, a conclusion emerges indicating that there is clearly a potential for PV-based urban-scale product development in Portugal, sourced in users. This potential enhances the need to develop policies devoted to promote “users as innovators”, by following capacity building strategies that enable users to engage in new product development.

KEY WORDS: Innovation, Photovoltaics, Users as Innovators, Design Competitions


In the built environment, the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) is a strategy within the philosophy of demand-side management and among RES, solar photovoltaic technology (PV) presents the unique potential to be merged with the urban environment, transforming cities in distributed green-electricity production facilities. PV materials present high flexibility patterns, both in form and function, for the application in urban structures, in general and in particular in buildings. Conventionally, the value of PV systems is estimated considering only the electricity production value. In an integrative solution the strategy passes through the integration of the PV systems as construction materials, embedded in Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) and Photovoltaic Non-Building Structures (PV-NBS). The economic advantages of these application steam not only from the possibility of displacing dedicated land resources to structures surfaces, but also from the use of PV panels as a construction material performing a given set of functions additional to the production of electricity. The optimal combination of physical and aesthetical integration of PV technology in urban structures is expected to maximise the overall value of the PV system, even if the resulting structure corresponds to a situation where the system is not strictly optimised for its energy output. The intent is that for each object designed there will be a balanced combination of form and function, which will deliver a high-value product. (Rodrigues, 2004) Additionally the social values that arise from these applications must also to be considered, as it

contributes to the overall market value of the structure (e. g. aesthetical value, environmental sustainability image) and to foster the potential to develop the levels of education and public awareness. PV-NBS integration in the in the urban space takes advantage of the architectural quality of the PV materials and is achieved taking into consideration the technological efficiency of the systems according to the designed product electrical requirements. A wide variety of concepts from urban street equipment, to sound barriers, shelters and kiosks can already be seen in some cities, both off-grid and grid-connected. Nevertheless, technology dissemination is needed, in particular among the different actors relevant in the BIPV and PV-NBS market and within the wide public, whose perception and knowledge is essential to promote new technologies and remove possible public related barriers. The successful deployment of PV integrated solutions largely depends on how solutions, materials and integration possibilities are perceived by the ones that can actually use these new materials in their work, as architects, designers and engineers. The adoption of this new technology and awareness of its characteristics as a construction material requires adequate dissemination and knowledge transfer between actors, to allow it’s effective appropriation. This adoption process, as any innovation adoption process, goes through an acceptance and afterwards implementation path, as extensively described by Rogers and his model diffusion of innovations. It is expected that after a first good impression and implementation process have occurred, the user will start to integrate this new solution into his work, facing the new technology as an available material in his conventional portfolio. These technology adoption users mainly act as passive users of a technology. Nevertheless, this passive attitude can change as the user acknowledges the innovation properties and starts to develop a will to work the technology and adapt it according to the perceived opportunities as a response to his needs. This appropriation of the innovation can be described as the evolution of passive users into active users, ultimately leading to a situation where users may be seen as the source of innovation. The concept of users as innovators is an emerging research field in the context of innovation systems, where focus is put in the needs and advantages of involving users in the innovation creation and development process, as privilege sources of practical information on market needs and gaps. A key issue in this approach to innovation models is how products may be transferred from users to industry. Entrepreneurship may be a way to this question.

On the Sustainable Development of Solar Thermal Obligations in. Buildings in the Framework of the Portuguese Case

M. Lopes Prates, J. Cruz Costa, J. Farinha Mendes e Maria Joao Carvalho

INETI, Department of Renewable Energies, Campus do Lumiar do INETI, 1649-038 Lisboa, Portugal

Phone: +351 21 092 4769
Corresponding author, lopes. prates@ineti. pt


This paper starts remembering the steps given in Portugal to prepare the introduction of a solar thermal obligation. Next, it presents a description of the present legislation related to the Solar Thermal Obligation (STO) and to other incentive measures for growth of the solar thermal market in Portugal. The main problems with implementation of the new regulation are analysed and systematized. Based on the acquired knowledge, further actions are presented to guarantee the success of Solar Thermal Obligation, namely proposals for updating the obligation in conformity with best practice for solar thermal installations and taking into account the new realities upcoming from the actual solar thermal market development, without sacrificing the final technical quality and user satisfaction.

Keywords: thermal performance of buildings, solar thermal obligation, solar thermal systems, solar thermal collectors, certification

1. Introduction

The first steps that allowed the present implementation of a solar thermal obligation in Portugal started in the past nineties, with the implementation of courses for installers of solar thermal systems and dissemination campaigns for good practices, in the framework of European ALTENER projects [1, 2], contributing to the development of education material to be used in installers training courses and to the establishment of the Portuguese qualification scheme for installers.

The next steps were given within the Sub Programme “Solar Hot Water for Portugal”, which was part of the general energy policy of the Portuguese Government, published in 2001[3]:

i) the implementation of a new Technical Committee on Energy, within the Portuguese Professional Certification System, that prepared and implemented a scheme for solar systems installers based on what was developed by QUALISOL project [2];

ii) the definition of a certification scheme for solar thermal collectors and factory made solar thermal systems.

In 2002, the rules of the “Incentive Measures for Renewable Energies and Rational Use of Energy” [4], applied the two certification schemes to Guarantee the Quality of Solar Thermal Systems to which the Incentives were applicable [5].

In 2006, the legislation transposing the EU Directive 2002/91/CE (EPBD) [6] was concluded and this was the final step for the implementation of a first solar thermal obligation in Portugal. This obligation is integrated in the new Portuguese Thermal Performance Building Regulation (RCCTE) [7].