The analysis of thermo-chemical conversion of OPEFB suggests that gasification is the most suitable thermo-chemical route for OPEFB conversion to biofuels. It has the highest carbon conversion (>90%) and biofuel yield. Due to the high viscosity and high water content of py­rolysis products, application of bio-oil as a biofuel is still very challenging. Compared to other oil palm residues, such as oil palm kernel, due to its high water content, OPEFB may not be a good candidate for solid fuels even after torrefaction pretreatment.