Soil temperature

Soil temperature influences root growth, thus nutrient and water uptake and, of course, biomass production. Most nutrients are absorbed with energy consumption (energetic uptake), so, low and very high soil temperatures negatively influence root growth and nutrient uptake. Furthermore, low soil temperatures induce a water deficit [32].

1.2. Air temperature

Air temperature directly influences photosynthesis, which is the most important physiological function in plants. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis depends on plant species and also on cultivar for the same species. Usually, the optimum temperature for maximum photosynthetic activity is around 25oC for most vegetative species. When temperature exceeds 35oC photosynthesis is inhibited, thus biomass production may be restrained. High temperatures are associated with a high vapor pressure deficit between leaves and the surrounding air. The same applies to fruit, where high temperatures may cause fruit drop in olive trees [31]. On the other hand, low temperatures act negatively in photosynthesis function and starch is redistributed and is accumulated in organs protected from frost, such as roots. Very low temperatures (<-12oC) damage the leaf canopy, shoot and branches of trees [31].