Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Settlement “Los Bajos”

A detailed monitoring of the users-equipment coexistence was carried out in order to increase the feeling of equipment ownership as a necessary condition to maintain the use in the short and long term.

The workshops prepared with the purpose of getting acquainted with the technology, Fig. 4, were developed in 10 days-periods, from 8 in the morning until 3 pm, thus taking advantage of maximum solar intensity. During these workshops, the families participated cooking — with the assistance of the research team — different types of meals in the solar cookers, showing others how to use them, and helping young and adults to learn by doing. Roles were assigned daily so that each time two members of the group cooked in order to get familiar with the technology and value the solar cookers availability and their null waste in fuel. At the same time, weekly random visits to the community served to monitor the equipment use and maintenance. Twice a month, meetings were promoted during which the members of the families exchanged information and made demonstrations about the use of the equipment. Motivation and enthusiasm were instilled for new and innovating applications.

Fig.4. Members of the families participating in the training workshops



It is worth emphasizing the bakery, pastry, pickled vegetables courses and others taught by staff specialized in these subjects, adapting them to the capacities and potential of the solar system used.

In the records referred to basic cooking of everyday meals, the use of the wood heater on cloudy days is prevalent, discarding the use of open fire. The solar cookers were used 75% of the time; for example, about 10 liters of water were heated in one hour during a sunny day on the big assembler. These practices survive in the routines of the community because they are used to heating water for breakfast, lunch, snacks and for personal cleanliness and dish washing in winter.

As regards the micro enterprises, two work teams were formed for two handcraft production enterprises:

1. Bakery and pastry, Fig.5:

• Types of bread: salty, sweet and “semitas” (a handmade bread with particles of fried bacon in it).

• Types of pastry: sponge cakes, “maicenas” (two biscuits made of cornstarch filled with milk jam), “pastelitos”, “pasta frola”, sweet “empanadillas” and “empanadas criollas”.


Подпись: Fig. 6. Jam elaboration: lime and pumpkin

Home-made jams of: lime, cayote, pumpkin and milk, Fig.6.

Fig. 5. Bread and pastry elaboration

As an additional task, the families of both enterprises also prepare and sell “empanadas”, which is very profitable because of the sales tradition already established in the region, but this time they do it using the solar equipment. The time needed to cook “empanadas” is 45 minutes using big trays in the stove and with full sun, and 1 hour when there is not so much sun. In this latter case, they also use the wood-burning stove, and exceptionally, the gas cooker on rainy days. From the financial point of view, the first enterprise sells 32 to 36 dozens every Sunday at U$S 2 each dozen. The other group obtains a maximum preparation of 16 dozens: this makes it evident that there is a great difference between the production of one group and the other. The reason for this may be found in the different marketing strategies exercised by the enterprises.

2. Conclusions

The research team experiences made it posible to analyze the problem faced by the people in the locations selected, and to apply a special transference methodology taking into account these people’s life reality. The workshops contributed to make the solar technology known, accepted and considered as a good energy alternative.

The technicians contributed to reach a true acceptance and internalization of the transference because they shared the tasks and promoted an increasing personal training. The fact that the technicians shared the meals, led the training, worked as co participants, and also shared some celebrations, was a strong point in favor of the results.

As regards the micro enterprises, the solar equipment was adopted thoroughly. The use of solar energy shows that the population could save money, which means an advantage considering the market prices.

One weakness observed in the transference methodology to schools is the problem of the constant changes in the teaching staff, and also in the personnel in charge of the kitchen.

Because of the results of this experience, new challenges were posed regarding a direct transference to the community without the school intervention. By this time, a new project is setting off which has been requested by the community itself provided they act as the technology promoters in the region. Twelve families in the village of Antofagasta de la Sierra are involved in this new idea.


[1] S. Bistoni, A. Iriarte, A Pereyra, H. Franchino y C. Arce. Implementation de microemprendimientos artesanales en base a energias alternativas como estrategias de vida, Avances en Energias renovables y Medio Ambiente, Asociacion Argentina de Energia Solar ( 2007) 1271-1277

[2] C. Rodriguez, A. Iriarte y F. Filippin, Tecnologia de coccion solar, una estrategia de transferencia en la puna catamarquena, Avances en Energias renovables y Medio Ambiente, Asociacion Argentina de Energia Solar, (2007) 1279-1286.

Project Specifications

2.1. Prototype

The prototype uses primarily local materials and requires no energy other than solar radiation. It is constructed from concrete, glass, a plastic barrel, paint, simple PVC fittings and tubing. The core of the design consists of a 0.83m2 concrete basin. A 240L barrel filled with seawater is connected to the basin filling the still to a depth of 1cm. The still is covered with a 0.9m2 sheet of glass on a 23° incline, hermetically sealed to keep heat and water vapor from escaping. Solar energy vaporizes the water, which then condenses on the glass. The water trickles down the incline of the glass into a trough that leads to a fresh water catch basin.

During January of 2008 the solar still produced a maximum of 2L of water per day. The distilled seawater was analyzed by the National Institute of Water Resources Management [INGRH — Instituto Nacional de Gestao dos Recursos Hidricos]. Results indicated that the sample exhibited the chemical properties of potable water, though the chemist recommended chlorine treatment to kill any potential bacteria. With the success of the solar still prototype, work began on the planning and construction of an improved solar still.

Laboratory exercises on photovoltaics at Czech Technical. University in Prague

V. Benda and Z. Machacek

Department of Electrotechnology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Czech Technical University in Prague
Technicka 2, 166 27 Praha 6, CZECH REPUBLIC
E-mail: benda@fel. cvut. cz


At the Czech Technical University in Prague, a course in Photovoltaic Systems, dealing with PV system technology (28 hours of lectures, 28 hours of exercises) forms a part of the master study programme in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology. A course of similar length on Photovoltaic Systems has been included in the master study programme in Intelligent Buildings.

Exercises are a very important part of the course orienting the course in a particular direction. The developed laboratory exercises deal with photovoltaic system applications, and are adapted to the requirements of electrical engineers. This paper provides information about the course structure and laboratory exercises oriented towards photovoltaic system applications.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, solar cells, education

1. Introduction

Photovoltaics is one of the most dynamically growing industries at the present time [1]. Yearly growth rates in the period from 2000 to 2007 were on an average more than 40%, and in 2007 PV industrial production grew by almost 60%. In 2007 the production level reached 4.2 GWp. The most of PV systems has been installed in Europe due to introduction of a feed-in tariff for on-grid systems (starting in 2000 in Germany). A level of 6 GWp installed in Europe may be reached by 2010 [2]. The growth of photovoltaics is connected with an increased demand for specialists. Several tens of thousands of new jobs are likely to be created in the field of photovoltaics in the next five years.

At the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the CTU in Prague a course on Solar Energy Exploitation Systems, mostly oriented in the field of photovoltaics, was introduced in 1995 as an optional course. The course was developed to give undergraduate students information about the full set of important problems connected with photovoltaics from photovoltaic effect, cell construction and technology to applications, including operating conditions and economical and ecological problems. Details about the course were published in [3]. Foreign students from the EU can attend the English version of this subject, that was introduces firstly in the year 2002/2003. Since the school year 2006/7, a course in Photovoltaic Systems, dealing

with PV system technology (28 hours of lectures, 28 hours of exercises) forms part of the master study programme in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology.

Input or output definition?

The selection of the input or the output method depends on the application of the data. Eurostat makes energy balances and therefore the energy input of a conversion process is seen as the energy production. This is in line with the method for e. g. biomass or coal. The output is useful if you want to know the amount of useful heat that is actually used. The final energy as it is used in the renewable energy directive [1] can be input or output. If a solar water heater is placed in a private home the final energy is the energy delivered to the house, which means the energy input to the solar water heater (the input method). If a large solar water heater delivers heat to a network, the final energy is the solar heat delivered to the end-user. In that case the final energy is the output of the solar system (minus distribution losses).

2. Conclusions and outstanding issues

The main conclusions of this paper are:

• Data on the installed collector area is available for most European countries.

• The quality of the statistics on collector area is reasonable, but a the average life-time for solar systems should be included.

• The energy production of the solar systems is still uncertain. The data from Eurostat shows an difference in production per square meter of collector which is not acceptable.

• A large difference is caused by mixing up the input and the output definition.

• To fit in the Eurostat method the input method should be used.

• For the output method the simple formula is an easy way to calculate the average output. The data vary still a lot between countries.

Outstanding issues

• Define the input method. The proposal is 50% of the solar radiation falling on the collector

(which is the insolation at the optimal angle).

• More monitoring data are needed to come to a reliable coefficient for the average output for the

collector. The data is needed for different applications and collector types.


[1] European Union, (2008), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources, Com(2008) 19, 23-1-2008, Brussels.

[2] Eurostat Energy Yearly Statistic 2006, (2008), Eurstat, Luxembourg, http://ec. europa. eu/eurostat

[3] Solar Thermal vision 2030, (2006), European Solar Thermal Technology Platform (ESTTP), www. esttp. org

[4] Strategic solar thermal research agenda, (2008), to be published see www. esttp. org

[5] The ThERRA project, several reports see www. therra. info , EU-contract: EIE/05/129/SI2.420023

[6] ThERRA, Proposal for the definition and calculation principle for renewable heat, (2007)

[7] L. Bosselaar, The role of solar heating in the European heat demand, (2006), Eurosun 2006.

[8] R. Segers, (2007), based on the Eurostat data, private communication.

[9] W. Weiss, I. Bergmann, G. Faninger, (2008), Solar Heat World Wide, markets and the contribution to the energy supply 2006, www. iea-shc. org

[10] Technical note: Converting solar thermal collector area into installed capacity (m2 to kWth), (2004), IEA Solar Heating and Cooling programme, Estif e. a.

[11] R. Segers, (2008), ThERRA Benchmark: Test of a Method for Calculating Renewable Heat, CBS,

Therra, www. therra. info

[12] H. Tretter, (2008) WP4: monitoring report, www. therra. info


Despite the assumption that new product development is an activity developed in research centres and development laboratories, there are common product market users that, unsatisfied with the global market offer, pursue the unique solution that fit their specific needs, readapting, reinventing or presenting completely new solutions and products. Dealing with real market gaps, where no solution has yet been addressed by the industry, these users, users as innovators, can be seen as positioned at the top of the innovation process, identifying and solving future market needs. Users as innovators can also be identified as users that find unsolved problems where companies do not believe it is worthwhile investing. (Hienerth, 2004) Led by the need to fulfil their needs not filled by conventional products available on the market, user innovators do not comply with the traditional pre requisites of economic bases to start innovating. According to Von Hippel (2006) this trend, denominated as democratization of innovations, is the result of two related technical trends: improving design capabilities and increasing ability of individual users to combine and coordinate their innovations.

The Portuguese STO

As it is well known, the EPBD [6] imposes the establishment of minimum requirements for thermal performance of buildings, and, for new buildings with a total useful floor area over 1 000 m2, Member States shall ensure that the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of alternative systems such as decentralised energy supply systems based on renewable energy is considered and is taken into account before construction starts (Art. 5).

The new Portuguese thermal performance building regulations related with the EU Directive 2002/91/CE [6], were published in the Official Portuguese Journal (DR — Diario da Repbblica, http://dre. pt/), on the 4th of April 2006. The official documents are:

• Building Certification National System on Energy and Interior Air Quality (SCE [8]), which transposes, together with both RSECE [9] and RCCTE [7], to the Portuguese legislation the EPBD [6], related with energy performance of buildings, and which defines the requirements of the qualified experts that can manage the certification process;

• Air Conditioning Energy Systems Regulation (RSECE [9]), which defines hygienic and thermal comfort conditions, and imposes rules for the air conditioning systems efficiency, for its maintenance and for keeping the quality of interior air, to achieve a better global energy efficiency of buildings. It imposes as mandatory priority consideration in both new buildings and major renovations, with the exception of fault of technical availability demonstrated by the designer under a mandatory methodology, the usage of flat solar collector systems for hot sanitary water production (Clause 2.a) of RSECE, Article 32);

• The referred Thermal Performance Building Regulation (RCCTE) [7], which improves the already existing regulation, almost duplicating the thermal performance request in the new and renovated buildings and imposing the usage of solar thermal collectors for hot water production if there is favourable conditions for exposure (if the roof or cover runs between SE and SW without significant obstructions) in a base of 1m2 per person (the total can be reduced to 50% if space is necessary for other important usages of the building).

Other important requirements of the Portuguese STO defined within RCCTE [7] are the following:

— For performance calculation of such systems, the product certification according to the European Standards is needed.

— This performance calculation is done using a programme developed by INETI, the SolTerm code.

— The installers of these systems must also be certified installers.

— The solar system must be guaranteed by a six year maintenance contract, covering the whole solar thermal system..

• The implementation calendar and taxes of Building Certification National System on Energy and Interior Air Quality [10, 11], is being managed and supervised by the National Energy Agency, ADENE : it began in July 2007 for some type of new buildings, in July 2008 for all new buildings and in January 2009 is extended to existing buildings in the way of a commercial transaction.

Fiscal incentives are available at the moment in Portugal:

a) The annual income taxation of individual contributors can be reduced by 30% of the acquisition value of new equipments for renewable energy production, with a limit of €777 [13];

b) The annual income taxation of collective contributors can be reduced by the value invested in renewable energy equipment at the annual rate of 25% of the overall purchase [14].

c) The VAT incident on renewable energy equipment has the intermediate value of 12 % [15].

An incentive scheme is also available:

a) On SME Qualification and Internationalization Regulation [16], which permits to be eligible the cost of acquisition of the equipment used for both energy efficiency and renewable energy production, and their costs with technical assistance, audits and tests. The energy efficiency and renewable energy production is one of 13 components. The maximum incentive for an individual project (with all their components) is € 250,000.

b) In the Azores Islands there is a Regional Incentive Programme. It is a direct incentive to the acquisition of renewable energy systems up to 25% of the system cost and a maximum of 1000 €. For companies, the maximum value of the incentive is 250000€, also up to 25% of system cost

[17] .

c) Also in Madeira Island there was a Regional Incentive Programme [18] for solar thermal systems for hot water production for dwellings, between years 2002 and 2006. This has now stopped. The collector area installed with this incentive was 3200 m2. It was an incentive up to 1000€ per apartment or 10000€ per building of apartments and up to 70% of the total investment. The incentive was calculated as a function of the energy delivered by the system.

Doctoral Program in Sustainable Energy Systems

The Doctoral Program in Sustainable Energy Systems of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (http://mit. fc. ul. pt) was developed in the context of the MIT-Portugal Program, in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Oporto University (FEUP), the Technical University of Lisbon (ISEG and IST) and the University of Coimbra. The first year of the doctoral program conjugates formal postgraduate teaching with development of individual research projects. Some of the courses of the 4th and 5th years of the Master Degree

program serve as optional disciplines for the Doctoral Program in Sustainable Energy Systems of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon.

The actual PhD projects are integrated within national and international research projects that are conducted by certified research centres, in particular the SESUL and the CGUL.

Energy Institute for Girl

This was the paramount task in the project. Other activities described above were in away auxiliary to this activity. The reasons why women are left out of renewable energy and development projects include lack of culture and history. Lack of women in energy planning and in the engineering field in developing countries such as Mozambique find their root in the cultural barriers of those traditional societies. Unless purposefully engaged, rural women and girls will continue to be lost or alienated customers of energy and other products of science and engineering necessary for the development of their society. Girls’ education and women’s literacy are central to poverty alleviation, sustainable social and economic development, and nation building.

To ensure that women are part of future energy planning and engineering workforce in Mozambique, a program for generating the interest of young women and girls in SMET must be instituted in order to break the cultural barriers which have held them back from participating.

The REEMWaG project pursued this goal by holding an institute for girls in which hands on training were used to demonstrate the power of science in solving real life problems familiar to them. Secondary school girls were selected for the institute each year. Participants were encouraged and supported to pursue SMET education at the college level. In addition to involving the students in the outreach project (example, In the installation of a PV lighting system at the community center), they worked with PV kits to explore the concepts of energy transformation and electrical circuits, with resultant interest in the sciences and engineering.

EMU faculty and local secondary school teachers spearhead the energy institute.

Another means of reaching as many rural girls as possible was through the traveling renewable energy demonstration laboratory. This lab visited schools through out the country and engaged girls and some boys, and their teachers in renewable energy short courses and experiments.

Programme contents

1.1. Courses

ESES is currently a one-year master programme consisting of seven compulsory courses during aprroximately one and a half semester, and about a half semester of (full time) project work. The courses are:

• Renewable energy technology, 5 ECTS

• Solar electricity, 9 ECTS

• Solar thermal, 9 ECTS

• Solar thermal design, 4 ECTS

• Solar energy management, 3 ECTS

• PV/Hybrid system design, 6 ECTS

• Passive solar energy technology, 6 ECTS

• Thesis project, 18 ECTS

Two-three courses are run in parallel. ESES uses predominantly internationally well-known textbooks; presently Boyle (2) Duffie-Beckman (3), Garg-Kandpal (4), and Markvart (5). The main subjects in the courses are introduction to renewable energy sources technologies, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic modules, and system technology for these techniques as well as hybrid systems. However, since one of the aims with the ESES education is to give a broad overview of solar technologies, subjects like solar architecture (energy performance as well as daylighting), solar economy and solar energy for tropical climates (e. g. desalination, solar cooking, drying and cooling) are treated. There are a number of practical exercises in the courses as well as study visits and computer simulations. Some exercises can be done using our solar simulator, and some of them require good solar conditions, which is why they are conducted towards the start of the academic year, before the long winter sets in.

The programme prepares students for positions in solar businesses or industries and for further studies such as a PhD. The curriculum was presented in some detail at ISREE-8 (6) and is available (along with other information) at the ESES home page www. eses. org.

Technical, economical and social impact

Technical impact

• development of the first BIPV Laboratory in Bucharest, Romania;

• first-time achievement in Romania of a systematic demo projects for building-integrated PV systems, having as support and model similar achievements at European and world level, anticipating a high impact on building contractors and end-users for the promotion of solar architecture integrating ecological energy sources in facades or roofs.

Economical and social impact

• creation of new jobs in the companies interested in extending their activities to include building-integrated PV systems and in those open to developing and investing in this field of activity;

• education and training of the young generation (specialists in architecture and in technical areas, students and even pupils) for the purpose of creating the human support able to carry on the long-term development of this field in the future;

• increase of the share of renewable energy (for any application, however small, designed to provide fully or partially the energy necessary for a certain purpose) compared with the energy obtained from conventional sources, contributing thus directly to CO2 emission reduction and greenhouse effect mitigation — all these leading to environmental protection and conservation and to the decrease of noxious effects on people’s

• health as well as reduction of diseases caused by pollution;

• these solutions can be adopted in time in rural tourism, creating opportunities of development of this sector in isolated tourist areas, too;

• the rehabilitation of old buildings in the historical centres of certain towns by using solar technologies would introduce in Romania the concept of “sustainable city” (“solar city”), a concept which is usually in the EU.

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