Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Co-operation with other projects and programmes

SOLAIR partners started or plan to start co-operations with existing projects, programmes and partners at different levels as follows:

Intensive contacts have been established with the IEE funded projects Solar Combi+ and SOLCO.

Solar Combi+ focuses on accelerating the market entry of solar thermal systems for the application of small systems for combined heating and cooling. It will describe available solar cooling technology as well, which will also support the mapping of the technology on the market in SOLAIR. Moreover the project is very close to the market with the presence of numerous industrial partners of the solar cooling field. For training material development this has permitted to get and valorise very accurate information on the commercial offer for small scale combined solar heating & cooling applications. Thus, synergies have been possible and will be continued during the whole duration of the projects, considering also co-operation for dissemination activities. The consortium partners TECSOL, AEE INTEC, CRES and FhG-ISE are involved in this project as well.

The SOLCO project focuses on the removal of non-technological barriers for cooling technologies and chilling systems as well as on their promotion and implementation in Southern European insular areas. Contacts and exchanges during the development of training materials have been realised and will continue including possible common dissemination activities.

A regular information exchange of SOLAIR results is taking place with the Task 38 “Solar Air­Conditioning and Refrigeration” of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency. As information exchange platform, the regular expert meetings, held twice per

year in April and October until 2009, will be used, since some SOLAIR partners (FhG-ISE, AEE INTEC, INETI, TECSOL, POLIMI and Ambiente Italia) are involved in Task 38 as well.

2. Conclusion

The different participating partner organisations within SOLAIR are positive about the development potential of SAC technologies. Though local conditions and requirements differ, similar problems as well as positive considerations have been experienced.

Community Outreach Development

The PV/Gen hybrid system is used to support various community facilities and utilities. The services have galvanized a positive attitude and the acceptance of PV electricity by the people in the village. PV based community outreach activities included establishment of a community center, community water supply, and a battery charging station.

Potential Of Solar Electricity In The Swedish Electricity Grid

Mats Ronnelid1* and Nicolas Estevez2

‘Solar Energy Research center SERC, Hogskolan Dalama, 78188, Borlange, Sweden

+46 23 778712, mrd@du. se

2SES Sustainable Energy Solutions AG. Basler Strasse 337, 4123 Allschwil / Basel, Switzerland

* Corresponding Author, mrd@du. se


The purpose of the present work is to examine how much PV that can be installed in the Swedish electricity grid before occurrences of electricity production from PV exceeding the electricity consumption start to happen. This is important to know since the use of PV in the electricity grid can be assumed to increase rapidly in the next decades. If PV should have an important role in the future electricity mix, it is important to know how electricity production and electricity demand matches to be able to prepare that PV can have a significant share of the electricity production.

With the electricity demand profile of today, Sweden will face a problem with electricity overproduction when PV panel production accounts for about 9% of total yearly electricity demand. If other non-interruptible electricity sources like some hydro power, nuclear power and wind energy are taken into account, even less solar electricity can be produced within the Swedish electricity grid. Although this scenario might be over a decade away from happening it is important to look ahead now and make sure that our current practices and standards do not lead us into trouble in the future.

Keywords: Electricity grid, PV, overproduction

A Good Start in Building Integrated Photovoltaics(BIPV) in Romania

Laurentiu FARA1*, Silvian FARA2 and Ana-Maria DABIJA3,

Polytechnic University of Bucharest PUB, Bucharest, Romania
2Design and Research Institute for Automation — IPA SA, Bucharest, Romania
3Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism — UAUIM, Bucharest, Romania
* Corresponding Author, lfara@renerg. pub. ro


The paper is based on a research national project (under work) focused on the promotion of new architectural concepts which include active solar systems (PV generators) and passive solar systems (lighting systems). The advantages of using the distributed solar architecture are more conspicuous in the case of large network-connected PV systems, such as the PV systems in the urban area, installed on the buildings facades or roofs. The major purpose of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale.

To demonstrate this purpose, the new products will be installed on three pilot buildings (two in Bucharest and one in Timisoara) and the PV modules will be integrated in consonance with their architecture. One of them will be a historical building and the other two will be new buildings; they will have different typologies and they will be located in different areas. The estimated installed power for each building will be of approximately 1.000Wp, including some technologies with PV modules integrated in the architecture of the buildings.

Keywords: building integrated PV, distributed solar architecture, pilot buildings.

1. Introduction

The future large-scale utilization of renewable energies is a world-wide priority, which can not be neglected by anyone. Currently, the world photovoltaic market approaches maturity, being in a continuous process of expansion reaching an annual increase of over 30% after 2003. The main actors on the market are Japan with roughly 48%, EU with 25% and the USA with 13%. The second position of the EU is primarily due to the fact that it massively financed specific programmes for the development of this area. Germany, for instance, launched in January 1999 the programme for the installation of 100,000 PV roofs before 2004 with an installed power of 300 MW, the users being granted excellent incentives (Report of the European Commission: Energy End — Use Efficiency and Electricity Biomass, Wind and Photovoltaics in the European Union — EUR21297EN). In the Report “Status of Photovoltaics in the Newly Associates States” (2004) elaborated based on the European project PV-EC-NET continued with PV-NAS-NET (FP6), it is stipulated that “the promotion of renewable energy sources” is an absolute priority of the EU. This is based on the Kyoto Protocol referring to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and on the policy of security in the energy area.” The EU goal is to reach a production of energy from renewable sources of 21% of the electric energy consumption in 2010, compared with only 6% in 1998.

It is well known that the necessity to harmonise Romanian standards to the European ones, with precise goals regarding environmental degradation prevention (the Kyoto Protocol was ratified by the Parliament of Romania, Law no. 3/2001) and to promote sustainable development has determined the Government of Romania to qualify the importance of the promotion of renewable energy sources as “national objective” (art. 3, Government Decision (GD) no. 443/10.04.2003). The general objectives of the Strategy for the Utilisation of Renewable Energy Sources are stipulated by GD no. 1535/18.12.2003 and include


the integration of renewable energy sources into the public energy system and the attenuation of the technical-functional and psycho-social barriers related to the use of such energies; the identification of cost and energy efficiency elements; the promotion of private investments on the renewable energy market. The integration of PV systems into building facades and roofs determining a new form of electric power plant, i. e. the distributed electric power plant, is the market segment with the highest rise worldwide, considered as the most attractive for the future, [2-8].

„Solar Architecture” is a general term which implies the integration of photovoltaic system into classical building design. The key concept here is represented by the photovoltaic modules, which substitute some facade or roof components. For the design and construction of solar/PV systems it is necessary to have information about the solar energy collectable on tilted surfaces. In Romania, the meteorological stations have no such databases and do not perform such measurements. This means that the application of numerical methods is limited because of the lack of data resulted from specific meteorological-climate observation. Although in Romania the building market is rapidly developing, the building contractors do not promote PV technologies and new materials used for high performance day lighting, either because of their ignorance or their conservativeness, or the high costs related to importing such systems from the European market. Though during the last years more private companies in Romania offered to merchandise and install PV systems, one can not discuss of a proper PV market. Thus, in contrast to other EU states, in Romania there is no photovoltaic building construction branch, the limited number of isolated cases being not enough to argue the start if a photovoltaic market in the building industry.

In general, the design of such buildings one should pursue the optimization of the processes of dimensioning and orienting the surfaces on which the components collecting solar energy are to be placed in order to obtain a maximum of collected energy, satisfying at the same time the quality with regard to destination of the building, the designing and aesthetics rules. Therefore, the data regarding the solar energy collectable on tilted surfaces represent a vital prerequisite for architects and engineers who have to size the PV or thermosolar systems, for the specialists who have to elaborate feasibility studies associated to the implementation of solar installations.

Compared with other European countries, Romania has an above-average solar irradiation in the summer, comparable to the one of Greece, country in which the solar/photovoltaic technology is highly developed. Stand-alone private PV systems and the ones supplying energy also into the grid can be an attractive investment solution. A key element for the promotion of these renewable energy sources is the education for the sustainable development of the economic and social life of the population, especially young people, future inhabitants of houses designed and built using the new concepts of solar architecture. The effort to carry out a project of such a span requires human resources highly qualified in different areas of study such as urban architecture, the physics of photovoltaic devices, the physics of atmosphere (solar radiation), applied electronics (electrical measurement methods), data transmission, informatics, database administration.

Market Implications of the Power Purchase Agreement Model

1.1. Suppliers

The Power Purchase Agreement model and resulting scale has created not only new customers for traditional design/build solar companies, but also new markets for traditional construction companies wishing to expand into renewable energy. Mondial completes significant marketing activities on behalf of the industry, thus is able to present pre-qualified business opportunities to suppliers.

1.2. Energy Modelling

The focus on energy generated as a revenue source and vital part of the value chain has brought actual energy generation into even sharper focus than before. For example it is clear that there was some industry ignorance about actual domestic cold water temperature seasonal variation. Rising


summer temperatures result in significantly lower seasonal energy generation as cold water temperatures rise with ambient temperatures.

Fig. 2 — Seasonal variation in production due primarily to rising domestic cold water temperatures

Note that the graph under-estimates this impact with significantly lower ambient temperatures in May over July. Significantly modelling completed with the government’s own modelling software (RETScreen) appears to be under-reporting energy generation by as much as 25% compared with more sophisticated models. This indicates the level of accuracy prevalent in the industry.

Electric Demand

Based on energy performance of electric equipments in the residential sector [7] performed by the Portuguese ministry of economy, two consumption and energy performance groups were defined: the business as usually (BAU) group that represents the appliances used by a typical family that neglects the energy efficiency issues and the BEST group that represents a family that takes care about the efficiency of their electric appliances (all of them are class A), and their responsible use.

Table 2. Yearly electricity demand for different domestic appliances [7].




































Audiovisual (ST)









The most efficient domestic laundry and dishwasher machines currently the market can receive preheated water from outside sources. Since 80-90% of the energy consumption of a washing machine results from heating the water with an electric resistance, there are considerable savings
when using a more efficient, preferably renewable, energy source to heat the water. In this study the washing machines used in the BEST group are replaced by machines fed with hot water from the solar thermal system. This represents savings around 80% (80% less than in Table 2) in the direct electricity needs on the washing machines. A standard laundry washing program requires temperatures around 40aC, for dishwashing, 40-50°C.

Visits to RES plants/facilities

One of the visits planed was to the one laboratory of the Engineering University (ETSII) of Valladolid, where can be seen different kind of solar collectors as well as cooling equipments. There were 19 attendants and the length of the visit was 1,5 hours

The technical visit was focused on solar thermal and solar cooling systems. The visit took place at the school of industrial engineering at the University of Valladolid. There were various solar thermal systems.

Students of the training course n° 2, engineers, technicians and professionals who were interested in solar energy systems, mainly composed the real audience of this visit.

For most of them the visit was a perfect complement for this training course. All in general were very interested in the visit.

Other visits have been made to facilities of a public heated swimming pool or a building of offices. Those visits were aimed at engineers, architects and professionals in the renewable energy sector.

SOLAR ONE — Taking Solar Energy Into The Community Kerr MacGregor

Scottish Solar Energy Group, 31 Temple Village, Midlothian, Scotland
EH23 4SQ. Tel +1871 830 271 email: kerr@macgregorsolar. com


This paper describes the rationale, conception and execution of a unique initiative to take solar energy into the community of Scotland. A mobile van fitted out with renewable energy equipment was prepared. It includes solar thermal, PV, small wind and bio-diesel technology. It is designed to be lived in and acquires all its energy from renewables. It is operated on behalf of the Scottish Solar Energy Group and has visited over 200 schools and 50 community events throughout Scotland over the last two years. Supported by commercial firms and voluntary organisations and the Scottish government, it is now self sufficient financially and is judged a great success in taking renewables into the community.

1. Introduction

The Scottish Solar Energy Group is the main solar energy body in Scotland. The group recognised that one of the main barriers to implementing solar energy was the widespread ignorance among the public regarding the technology. It was decided that the best way of combating that was to develop a mobile demonstration of renewables which could into the community, especially schools. That demonstration became SOLAR ONE.

Conservation of energy in buildings

This literally means curtailment of wastage, utilization of low power-consuming devices and adoption of alternative form of energy sources (non-conventional) suitable to climatic conditions. Electrical energy is utilizes in buildings in different forms like lighting ventilation, water pumping, air — conditioners and other domestic items. In all these optimization of energy consumption supplements achievement of energy conservation. Implementation of innovative strategies like sustainable architectural designs, automation and building management system, geothermal system and roof top chillers will control and reduce energy consumption levels.

3. Silent features of Universal Home

The house is designed on the principles of sustainable resources.

The design of the house is to conserve natural resources and to have minimal impact on the environment. In the design, built-in, customized environment-friendly, zero electricity refrigerators, and built-in energy efficient lights are among the features that help to bring down energy consumption in the home while ensuring comfort levels. The house design the materials are selected, to drastically reducing the carbon emissions in the whole life cycle of the building (construction, actual life and destruction) without compromising on the high-energy life style of the inhabitants. The house design has been worked out towards achieving this collective goal, by addressing the following six main areas:

Development: keep it simple

Complexity of the law act as a universal barrier. Therefore, the following is needed:

• the regulation should be simple and clear, since therefore:

1. it would be easier to be applied (meaning also low costs for managing the STO)

2. it would be easier to convince stakeholders

• to have clear and straight-forward timing and deadlines (starting date for the implementation, deadlines for complying and reporting, dates for checks, etc.)

2.1.2 Development: which buildings?

In order to have a high impact, the scope of the STO should include a remarkable share of the building stock. Therefore:

• include not only residential buildings, but also tertiary activities which consume hot water (elderly homes, hospitals, jails, sport centres and gyms, etc.)

• include as many refurbishment activities as possible, for instance, foresee the obligation for any refurbishment which concerns heat supply plants

2.1.3 Development: not too many exemptions

Exemptions to the accomplishment of the law should be not too many and not ambiguous:

• in particular, clear rules should be established for historical and protected buildings/areas; it would be advisable not to have a 100% exemption, but rules for architecturally integrating technologies in order to lower their visual impact

• do not ask that the solar collectors should not be seen from street level

• do not ask for internal boiler only

• industrial buildings could be exempted

• buildings with small consumption of hot water could be exempted

• seasonal buildings (when the consumption is mainly in cold seasons!) could be exempted

2.1.4 Development: which technologies?

Several technologies could be considered when implementing a renewable heat ordinance, which is not “solar only”. The recommendations are:

• allow different technologies for complying with the obligation

• set priorities, according to technical and economical feasibility

• include only “actually renewable” heat technologies: no fossil CHP, no heat pumps

• do not “mix” heat and electricity, e. g. do not exempt from the renewable heat obligation buildings which have photovoltaic on the roof

2.1.5 Development: quantitative obligation and calculation method

For setting the quantitative obligation, the following remarks should be taken into account:

• set a quantitative obligation for covering by renewables a minimum share of the hot water or total heat consumption of the building

• do not mix obligations on heat and electricity

• the quantitative obligation chosen should be reasonably reachable, e. g. in terms of available roof area or in terms of demand fraction to be covered

2.1.6 Development: quality requirements

Quality is a key issue in a STO, since:

• mandatory solar thermal could mean lower quality solar thermal

• some Countries already experienced relevant mistrusts towards solar thermal in the recent past (e. g. Italy, Portugal)

• on the other hand…ask for the same quality requirements as for other domestic appliances and not much stricter ones!

Do not include too many technical requirements, since:

• it is not possible to check all of them

• it does not necessarily assure quality

• it prevents technological innovation and development from being applied Quality rules should be:

• clear

• applicable (e. g. if product certification is required, a reasonable amount of certified products should already be available on the market; if it is not the case, allow a time delay for complying with the certification requirements included in the STO)

• comprehensive (include requirements on design and planning, products, installation, operation and maintenance)

• for products: referring to European standards is advisable (e. g. Solar Keymark)

• for installation: you could ask for one or more requirements (e. g. certified installers, maintenance contract, etc.)

• for operation and maintenance: you could ask for one or more requirements (e. g. Guaranteed Solar Results scheme, system monitoring, random checks, maintenance contract, etc.)

• A calculation method should be provided, with the following approach:

• set a simple and clear method

• use, as much as possible, figures which Municipalities are used to (e. g. link the mandatory m2 of solar collectors to m2 of living area or to the number of building occupants)

• develop calculation sheets and provide both designers/building companies and personnel of the Municipalities with them, also training them for a correct use of the tools

2.1.7 Implementation: checks and fees

A good STO should include both checks and fees.

Recommendations for implementing checks:

• the complete approach includes 3 checks: design phase, after installation, during operation

• checks in the design phase:

1. checks work well if calculation methods are simple and the personnel in charge of the checks is properly trained

2. include specific STO checks in the ordinary building check, so no surplus costs for the work of checking should be borne

• checks after installation: the check could consist either of a in-situ inspection or a verification of the certification of the installer

• check during operation: the most effective solution is to foresee random checks and then “advertise” widely when someone not complying with the law is caught and therefore has to pay the corresponding fee

Recommendations for setting fees:

• they are needed to make people understand that this law shall be taken seriously:

• they should be high enough to “scare” building developers

• they should be higher than the additional cost coming from complying with the STO (e. g. the cost of including a solar thermal plant in the building)

2.1.8 Implementation: flanking measures

In general:

• flanking measures should be considered as part of the STO, since, without them, even the “perfect STO” could be ineffective

• they should be planned, worked out and implemented before and during the STO

• need for targeted actions, addressing the main actors involved A list of suggested flanking measures is:

• training for Municipality personnel (more than just a flanking measure, it plays a crucial role!)

• training for installers

• specific training on large scale solar thermal plants for designers

• giving the good example: develop pilot plants in your own public buildings

• information workshops for “external” actors, e. g. building companies, banks, etc.

• comprehensive web site where designers, building companies, installers can find reference documents, guidelines, etc.; a good reference is the “gestor integral” web platform developed by Barcelona Municipality

• information campaign addressing final users

• careful and targeted communication actions (see section “Birth: let everybody know why”)

2.2 Performance indicators

Following difficulties have been faced in carrying out this task:

• since STO is a relatively new mechanism, several of the analysed ordinances are quite recent and therefore no or only a few quantifiable results are available;

• most of the analysed STOs do not foresee a monitoring of their effects, which is a really negative issue, because it is not possible to compare results with the targets set in the preparation phase; this is the reason why the inclusion of a clear monitoring plan has been reported, in the previous section, as a key success factor.

2.2.1 Is it working well?


• number of buildings addressed by the STO (also in terms of m2 of living area and of people addressed by the STO)

• share of buildings addressed on the total building stock

• if the ordinance is not “solar only”: share of buildings (new/refurbished) which chose solar thermal to comply with the law

• real figures for surplus cost in new/refurbished buildings (check that this value is reasonable)

• how many buildings applied successfully for being exempted?

• number of cases where the minimum obligation foreseen has been definitely overcome (e. g. buildings which chose a 50% share of solar thermal on hot water demand, when the STO requirement is 30%)


• how many people in the Administration have been trained to perform checks?

• share of negative checks in the design phase

• number of random checks in the installation or operation phase and share of negative situations

• number of sanctioned situations and rate of accomplishment (payment of the fees)


• how many “external actors” (e. g. building companies, banks, etc.) have been involved in information workshops?

• how many people have been involved in information campaigns addressing final users?

• how many Municipalities replicated a similar ordinance?

• are final users happy with the law? A questionnaire could be developed and spread

2.2.2 Impact on the development of the solar thermal sector

• installed solar thermal plants thanks to the STO (m2, kWth)

• m2 of solar thermal installed in public buildings

• growth of the local and/or national ST market thanks to the implementation of the STO (compare the new growth rate with the rates before the STO was operating)

• number of new companies manufacturing solar collectors and/or plants in your Administration/Country

• number of new certificates issued for solar collectors in the local/national market

• number of people trained on solar thermal (designer, installers, etc.)

• effects on non-obliged segments of the solar thermal market, for instance buildings not included in the scope of the STO (e. g. industrial)

2.2.3 Impacts on the local energy supply

• heat produced by the installed solar thermal systems, quantified through the energy savings (final or primary) and/or the share on the total heat demand or the hot water consumption; the figures could be measured (when metering systems are installed in the plants) or estimated from the m2 installed

• CO2 emissions avoided (calculated from the above parameters)

2.2.4 Impacts of existing stos: some examples

• real figures for surplus cost in new/refurbished buildings:

1. Spain: 0.45-0.59% increase per m2 built

2. Catalunya: 0,32-0,41% per m2 built

3. Barcelona: 0.29-0.38% per m2 built

4. Pamplona: 0.53-0.68% per m2 built

5. Baden-Wuttenberg: 20 to 34 € per m2 living area (<1% of the building cost)

• installed solar thermal plants thanks to the STO:

1. Spain: 4,900,000 m2 installed by 2010 (estimated)

2. Barcelona: from 1999 to 2007, the total installed solar thermal surface goes from 1,350 m2 to 51,436 m2 (real)

3. Ireland: 22,165 m2 of solar thermal will be installed in the Counties involved (estimated)

• number of people trained on solar thermal (designer, installers, etc.):

1. Portugal: 1,000 certified installers and dozens of already planned courses

• heat produced by the installed solar thermal systems:

1. Ireland: primary energy saving of about 270,000 MWh/year (estimated)

2. Spain: 1,536,500 kWh/year (estimated)

3. Catalunya: 84,000 kWh/year (estimated)

4. Barcelona: 32,076 MWh/year (summary 2002-2006, estimated) [1]

2. Barcelona: 5.640 t/year (summary 2002-2006, estimated)

3 Next steps

In order to support the Local Authorities involved in the project and any other European Authority interested in introducing a STO, the ProSTO project is now developing useful tools covering the whole STO process:

• STO best practice database as internet tool, basically showing the examples collected in the first part of the project. Specific characteristics of each individual best practice STOs are presented such as the motivation of local politicians, the experiences made, how the market developed, which flanking measures where implemented, which was the legal base and the administrative procedures of this individual STO, which technical criteria were required for installations etc.

• Production of model documents for STOs:

• The local law document containing the obligation to install solar thermal systems itself

• A document specifying the quality requirements on the products or the quality criteria requirements on the installation.

• A document with calculation procedures

• A document with procedures for quality control

• Elaboration of catalogue with recommendations and references for flanking measures

• STO development blueprint. This is a document with a step-by-step process description on how to develop and implement a STO on local level. The blueprint will be a practical working document guiding through the STO process, making reference to experiences made in the project, available tools, best practice examples and lessons learnt.

4 Conclusions

The market impact of well implemented STOs has shown to be high (up to a factor of ten in one year). In the best case, this action will lead to the implementation of efficient STOs in many European regions or even countries. This can lead to an accelerated growth of the solar thermal market with installation rates estimated up to 20 GWth each year (~0,5 % of Europe’s total heat demand for the residential sector).

Solar thermal ordinances are a powerful tool for promoting solar thermal and other RES in the residential sector. The European Commission is going to introduce a directive which will introduce the mandatory use of minimum shares of RES.

On the other side, STOs need a quite complex process to be introduced, since they affect a large variety of actors and stakeholders.

The ProSTO project is therefore crucial for creating show cases and useful tools for communities undergoing such a process.


[1] Longo and Rogall, SWW, April 2004

[2] ESTIF, Best practice regulations for solar thermal, August 2007