Experimental Apparatus

Tests shall be performed with system components installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. The collector shall be mounted in a fixed position facing the equator within a range of ±10 and located in such a manner that a shadow should not be cast onto the collector at any time during the test period.


The schematic representation of experimental apparatus for test procedure system is shown in Fig. 1. It is an open circle loop that contains solar collector, storage tank, valves, and measurement sensors, such as flow meter, radiometer, temperature sensors etc. There are three temperature sensors used in storage tank for two reasons: (a) to obtain the stratification profile in the storage tank along the test and (b) to determine when the homogenized temperature in the storage tank is reached (see Fig. 1.).

Fig.1. Experimental apparatus for the performance test

The responsibility of the loop is also to recirculate the fluid, using a small pump to allow the quick circulation of the water from the storage tank to the collector. The loop has also an air vent, whose operation can drain off the air to make the flow rate at a stable level. The whole loop shall be insulated to ensure a heat loss rate of less than 0.2 W/K and protected with reflective weatherproof coating, so that calculated temperature loss or gain along the homogenize procedure does not exceed 0.2 K under test conditions.

Additionally the ambient temperature is measured using a shaded thermal resistance 1 m above the ground approximately and not closer than 1.5 m to the collector and system, the inlet and outlet water storage tank temperatures are measured with thermal resistance, global solar irradiance sensors are also integrated on the collector plane and an anemometer is also installed in order to measure the wind direction and speed.

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