Chemistry of Biomass Gasification

Gasification is a conversion process that transforms macromolecular car­bonaceous matters contained in fossil fuels and biological substances into simpler gaseous molecular products. The gaseous products from a gasification reaction are called synthesis gas, syngas, or producer’s gas. Depending upon the original carbonaceous feedstock, the syngas may be further labeled as coal syngas, natural gas (NG) syngas, or biomass syngas. Gasification of biomass usually takes place at an elevated tem­perature with the aid of a gasifying medium, which may be regarded as a gaseous reactant. Because gasification involves both heat and chemical(s) that induce concurrent thermal decomposition and chemical reactions, the gasification process is classified as a thermochemical conver­sion process.