Catalytic upgrading

Catalytic upgrading process is conducted in a number of different ways. Most commonly practiced method would be injection of bio-oil into a tubular reactor packed with a catalyst capable of deoxygenating the substrates. Due to the inefficacies associated with condensing and reheating processes, a reactor capable of accepting a direct feed of pyrolysis vapor into its catalytic chamber has become more popular. Numerous forms of Zeolites are known to be effective for deoxygenation[68] of which ZSM-5 is widely touted to be the most effective catalyst for deoxygenation (via decarboxylation, decarbonylation or dehydration pathways). ZSM-5 is a molecular sieve with 5.5 A pore channels. This pore structure is responsible for the high selectivity of ZSM-5 toward aromatic hydrocarbons. Deoxygenation reaction on ZSM-5 is believed to be catalyzed at the Bronsted acid sites and its structure is depicted in fig.6.