Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

Water heating system

A solar water heating system is in place to meet the hot water requirements. While a solar water heater taps the sun’s energy directly, a series of photovoltaic panels capture the energy and store it by charging a bank of batteries. The solar panels, each measuring 1.1 by 1.2 meters, are joined and form an integral part of the roof of the building. Photovoltaic panel also powers the water pump.

4. Roof innovatively to admit maximum daylight

Подпись: Roof insulation

image118 image119 Подпись: fixed

Подпись: covering maximum area of

image122 image123

Roof design

Fig. 3: Critical Roof Design parameters.

. El Salvador

image145 Подпись: Evolu9ao da Temperatura do Ar Interior - Coberturas A1, A2, A3, A4 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 10 a 25 de Mar9o

The foundation FUNDASAL — Fundacion Salvadorena de Desarrollo y Vivienda Minima, since 1968 has been undertake a enormous effort to eradicate the poorness and marginality with integral programs of houses construction and complementary services and the planification of rural and urban areas and settlement improvement [1]. With the survey carried out on El Salvador it was conclude the inexistence of systematic evaluation processes for adopted solutions, such as, the type of tiles used for the ceilings. After the meeting in 2006, in El Salvador, was collected some samples of tiles in order to measure at Department of Renewable Energies of INETI, in Lisbon, the superficial proprieties and based on the experimental results, a sensitivity study was undertaken concerning different tiles and colors. It was conclude that during the night period the internal and external temperature distribution are similar but during the day period, as is the incident solar radiation that determine the internal conditions with the smooth white tile is expected a reduction of 3 °C on the maximum temperature values. This measure is already been implemented.

2.3. Equator

In 2005 was identified the more sensible areas for apply the concept of energetic efficiency and it was implementation in some social houses prototypes of some technologies developed at the “Laboratorio de Energias Alternativas e Eficiencia Energetica”, such as, potable water from rain-water, thermo siphon plan solar collector, Trombe wall and bio combustibles [1]. After that a survey on social houses programs and their evaluation, the improvements introduced by the users and pos occupation studies. In 2008 it will be conclude the thermal evaluation of two detached houses with a mass and energy balance model.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

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The research carried out by the PSE-ARFRISOL Group has as a principal objective to develop the passive solar techniques and the integration of active systems during five years (2005-2010). The PSE-ARFRISOL which is supported by the Spanish Government is currently the principal project in that group. It uses several effective techniques to reduce the total energy demand, such as cross ventilation, shadowings, greenhouses or special windows.

People knows that Spain is one of the European countries with more solar radiation. The Spanish researchers are looking for the way to take advantage of the Sun through solar energy use in buildings. PSE-ARFRISOL includes five zones in Spain. Asturias, Soria and Madrid are cooler climates than Almeria, with a blazing sun. The scientists will equip every building with experimental systems based in solar passive and active technologies for heating and cooling.

For example, in Soria, which is a cold area in Spain during winter, the scientists have thought in low consumption biomass boilers to provide the comfort to the future users. However, in the south of Spain (Almeria), the RDBP will contain an absortion pump, like the other building prototypes. It is a system which uses hot water from the solar collector field to produce cooling energy and offer the best conditions of comfort.

image193The strategy of this project is to save up to 60% of energy demand in offices buildings using passives techniques. Moreover, by means of active techniques (solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels) the conventional consumed energy will be reduced by 30%. In this kind of buildings, the users could save up to 90% by the combination of passive and active techniques. The Spanish government would like promoting the change of the society mind about these terms.

The PSE-ARFRISOL Group has a difficut labour based in monitoring all the data related to the energy demand (temperature, humity, energy flux…). Besides, the data will be compared to energy demand of a reference building in order to demostrate the energy saving.

Подпись:image195F.6 Data system

After at least a year of experimentation by collecting data, the workgroup will be able to demostrate how close reality is from simulation, and this will be useful to make more accurate each simulation model for future references. This is the most important part because the energy saving in office buildings based on real data could achieve a quota around 80%. The overcost of Bioclimatic office buildings would not be higher than 15%. According to IDAE, the overcost in office buildings due to the energetic requirements of the new Spanish Building Technical Code (CTE) will be around 5%. This higher initial cost will be compensated with an important reduction of the energy bill to pay during the building life period. These data will be proved by the end of the project and they will be spread into the society with real guarentees. They will help to change the people mind.

Education in the Field of Photovoltaics at the Czech Technical University in Prague

V. Benda

Department of Electrotechnology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Czech Technical University in Prague
Technicka 2, 166 27 Praha 6, CZECH REPUBLIC
E-mail: benda@fel. cvut. cz

Abstract

Photovoltaics has been recognised as a renewable energy technology that has the potential to contribute significantly to future energy supply. The demand for specialists in photovoltaics is expected to increase considerably anticipated in the relatively near future. Education and training are needed for specialists in this field, in order to establish an infrastructure and to meet the requirements of the market.

At the Czech Technical University in Prague, a course in Photovoltaic Systems, dealing with PV system technology (28 hours of lectures, 28 hours of exercises) forms a part of the master study programme in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology. A course of similar length on Photovoltaic Systems has been included in the master study programme in Intelligent Buildings. This paper provides information about the course structure.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, solar cells, education

1. Introduction

In recent years, photovoltaics has received a great deal of attention and funding as a renewable technology that has the potential to contribute significantly to future energy supply. It is the task of scientists, engineers and businessmen to develop this technology into cost-efficient applications, and it is the task of educators to prepare not only specialists who will develop photovoltaics but also members of the general public to be aware of the issues involved in this field.

Impressive progress has been made in PV technology over the past twenty years. This is evident from the lower costs, the rising efficiency and the great improvements in system reliability and yield. Yearly growth rates in the period from 2000 to 2007 were on an average more than 40%, and in 2007 PV industrial production grew by almost 60%. In 2007 the production level reached 4.2 GWp. Photovoltaics is one of the most dynamically growing industries at the present time [1].

The most of PV systems has been installed in Europe due to introduction of a feed-in tariff for on-grid systems (starting in 2000 in Germany). In 2000 was also stated the target 3 GWp for cumulative photovoltaic system capacity installed in the European Union by 2010. The real growth rate is much higher than the planned rate, and 3 GWp have been reached before the end of 2007. A level of 6 GWp may be reached by 2010 [2].

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Figure.1. The growth of the world PV cell production

The growth of photovoltaics is connected with an increased demand for specialists. In Europe, several tens of thousands of new jobs are likely to be created in the field of photovoltaics in the next five years

[2] . It is not only the photovoltaics industry that will require people to be educated in photovoltaics. It will also be necessary to ensure that the general public knows about the nature, application and dissemination of photovoltaic systems.

Vision 2030

The ESTTP’s main objective is to create the right conditions in order to fully exploit the solar thermal potential for heating and cooling in Europe and worldwide. This would ensure long-term technological leadership of the European industry.

This potential will not be completely achieved by 2030. However, under positive framework conditions, it will be possible to substantially expand the use of solar thermal energy, and to establish the technological basis for achieving full potential in the following two decades.

As a first step for the development of the Deployment Roadmap and of the Strategic Research Agenda, the ESTTP has developed a vision for solar thermal energy in 2030. Its key elements are to:

• establish the Active Solar Building as a standard for new buildings by 2030 — Active Solar buildings cover 100% of their heating and cooling demand with solar energy;

• establish Active Solar Renovation as a standard for the refurbishment of existing buildings by 2030 — Active Solar renovated buildings are heated and cooled to at least 50% with solar thermal

energy;

• use solar thermal energy to cover a substantial share of the industrial process heat demand up to 250°C, including heating and cooling, as well as desalination and water treatment and a wide range of other high-potential processes; and

• achieve widespread use of solar energy in existing and future district heating and cooling networks, where it is particularly cost-effective.

DIFFUSION OF USER DEVELOPED INNOVATIONS

The dissemination of user-developed innovations is essential if conclusive outcomes and added value products are pursued. Knowledge sharing and the construction of ideas under similar and complementary backgrounds avoids not only resources spare by different inventors but also allows the creation of more complete products that can effectively respond to the needs felt by the consumers. The passage to product development and manufacture raises several questions, namely, the importance of interacting with strategic partners and supporters that allow the achievement of economies of scale during product production and distribution. When talking in physical products, the prototype phase, foreseen by idea generation, is of greater importance. The results achieved in this phase, which expresses the feasibility of ideas, are crucial and have to be strategically thought in order to effectively foster the creation and development of new products.

At this point it’s important to explore Von Hippel’s (2004) question of “how can or should user innovation be transferred to manufacturers for large scale diffusion?”. According to this author there are three possible methods. Two methods are based on manufacture’s willingness to support and actively seek for user innovations. They can search for product developments that according to their market perspective can became profitable commercial products, or they can promote user interaction through the provision of toolkits for user innovation. A third hypothesis explores the possibility of users becoming manufacturers.

Further implementation of “Solar Thermal Obligation” measures

Within the recently approved Energy Efficiency National Action Plan [21], some additional actions of the type “Solar Thermal Obligation” are introduced in the following programmes:

i) Energy Eficiency in Buildings

a. Measure “Micro-production” (R&S6M1) — incentive to micro-power production (PV, wind, hydro, biomass, …), with the mandatory installation of at least 2 m2 (on a basis of 1 m2 per 1 kW installed) of solar thermal to access a bonus on the kWh tariff, with exemption of the municipal licensing for small installations,

b. Measure “Service Buildings” (R&S5M2) — Implementation of solar thermal and of microproduction in schools;

ii) Renewables in the Moment

a. Measure “Solar Thermal” (R&S6M2), to get a solar thermal market of 175,000 m2/year — dissemination campaigns, incentives programme for the installation of new solar thermal (fiscal benefit up to 30% of the investment within the Income

Tax of Natural Persons, with a limit of €777), mandatory installation of solar thermal in new buildings, oriented programmes for specific segments (social dwellings, swimming-pools and showers, solar condominium);

iii) Energy Eficiency in the Public Sector

a. Measure “Buildings” —

i. Energetic Certification of the State Buildings (E8M1), covering 100% of the State buildings until 2015,

ii. Solar thermal in swimming pools (E8M2) — installation of solar thermal systems for solar hot water in swimming-pools and balnearies, covering 285 swimming-pools (property of both the State and the private sector) until 2015, including 100% of public swimming-pools and Balnearies,

iii. Solar thermal in sport parks (E8M3) — installation of solar thermal systems for solar hot water, covering 80% of the actual balnearies until 2015.

Meanwhile, it is expected a revision of the actual regulation [7-9], in the way of the answers given on the RCCTE Questions & Answers [19], as well the implementation of actions to overcome the referred (in point 3) lack of adequate knowledge by the stakeholders.

Information sources and adopted investigative technique

At the same time, the total sample’s definition requires surveys and confirmation of the existent number of solar water heating systems. Therefore, a field research has taken place at the 3 cities, where specific questionnaires were used along with fabric and installation companies, commercial stores and customers. The statistic analysis is discussed later.

“Questionnaire A” was developed to raise the technical information, such as collector area sizing estimation, storage tank volume, collectors’ array and insertion in field, general conditions of operation and installation, and equipment maintenance and life cycle. Questions related to sociological and behavioral topics about the use of solar water heating generated “Questionnaire B”. With the creation of a website, dedicated to this project, it was possible to provide secrecy and appropriate ways to transfer and store the collected information.

To develop these questionnaires, important factors — as appropriate language and interest for all the social and economic classes — were included. The inquiry blocks used are illustrated in Figure 2.

The maintenance of this inquiry method in all questionnaires allows the comparative evaluation of the main problems detected. Through this strategy, economic, social, cultural, climatic and technological factors associated to solar water heating had become clearer and easier to understand.

QUESTIONNAIRE A

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QUESTIONNAIRE B

Figure 2 — Blocks of research surveyed in the questionnaires — users’ satisfaction, performance and technical aspects evaluation of the Brazilian solar water heating installations.

Dissemination activities related to solar cooling by means of the Project Best Results

J. Vicente11*, L. Bujedo1, C. de-Torre1 , P. Caballero1, C. Sanz1, S. Sanz1, A. Macia1.,

J, Rodriguez2

1CARTIF, Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo Parc 205, 47151 Boecillo, Spain
2Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research. Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bozen/Bolzano. Italy

* Corresponding Author, iulvic@,cartif. es

Abstract

The BEST RESULT project idea was born and developed by actors, involved in training and diffusion activities in the field of RES (Renewable Energy Sources) technologies, who experienced the strong need to raise the skills and know-how about RES among suppliers of house building and energy systems (installers, technicians, professionals, sellers, planners, etc.). Partners noticed the lack of knowledge amongst suppliers and the need to support both RES supply and demand in the sector of small scale RES applications in buildings. To solve this problem at a European level, the BEST RESULT partners are planning both common and local activities addressing RES suppliers, as basic and specialized training and updating events, workshops, visits to exchange know-how and working experiences, E-learning common platform. Many communication and information events will address the general public as part of the strategy to raise awareness of RES opportunities among European citizens. In this framework, CARTIF has carried out some tasks directed towards making diffusion of solar cooling and biomass: e-learning, training courses, local training workshops, technical visits, etc. Here we are going to focus on the solar cooling tasks giving first a general view of the project.

Keywords: solar cooling, renewable energy sources, buildings, training, diffusion.

1. Introduction

1.1. Objectives

As establish [1], the BEST RESULT project aims to develop a working strategy to extend the market of small scale RES applications in the building and energy sector through common and local activities addressing RES suppliers and consumers. All activities are aimed at opening new market opportunities and raising suppliers’ awareness and knowledge of RES applications by providing information and suggestions on how to improve their positioning inside the market. Information and communication activities targeting the general public or specific groups of consumers will simultaneously support the demand side. Strategies will be developed for a better internal and external communication tools among all the supply and demand actors of the building RES market. Good coordination and cooperation at European as well as at national and local level will permit to carry out interesting activities, bringing a common result in this European project fulfilment.

Qualitative Signs of Goal attainment

School girls were very enthusiastic participate and learn during the energy institute. Many expressed the desire to study science and engineering as they grow up and further their education. The level of curiosity among young women and girls was extremely high at the new technologies introduced in their community. The community was very thankful to the funders and extremely jubilant at the relieve the energy system and the water supply gave them, particularly the women. These sentiments were very evident during the dedication of the new Community Center and the Power systems.

Rural women from Banga Village, the project main site, have become more organized and participatory in socioeconomic activities. The rural community has become visibly more lively and exuberant. There appears to be an increased interest in the current affairs by rural women. There is a general believe among the women that live is better and that there is hope for an improvement in their economy.