Category Archives: EuroSun2008-9

. El Salvador

image145 Подпись: Evolu9ao da Temperatura do Ar Interior - Coberturas A1, A2, A3, A4 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 10 a 25 de Mar9o

The foundation FUNDASAL — Fundacion Salvadorena de Desarrollo y Vivienda Minima, since 1968 has been undertake a enormous effort to eradicate the poorness and marginality with integral programs of houses construction and complementary services and the planification of rural and urban areas and settlement improvement [1]. With the survey carried out on El Salvador it was conclude the inexistence of systematic evaluation processes for adopted solutions, such as, the type of tiles used for the ceilings. After the meeting in 2006, in El Salvador, was collected some samples of tiles in order to measure at Department of Renewable Energies of INETI, in Lisbon, the superficial proprieties and based on the experimental results, a sensitivity study was undertaken concerning different tiles and colors. It was conclude that during the night period the internal and external temperature distribution are similar but during the day period, as is the incident solar radiation that determine the internal conditions with the smooth white tile is expected a reduction of 3 °C on the maximum temperature values. This measure is already been implemented.

2.3. Equator

In 2005 was identified the more sensible areas for apply the concept of energetic efficiency and it was implementation in some social houses prototypes of some technologies developed at the “Laboratorio de Energias Alternativas e Eficiencia Energetica”, such as, potable water from rain-water, thermo siphon plan solar collector, Trombe wall and bio combustibles [1]. After that a survey on social houses programs and their evaluation, the improvements introduced by the users and pos occupation studies. In 2008 it will be conclude the thermal evaluation of two detached houses with a mass and energy balance model.

Course description

The PV System Installation Training Course is a one week course, taught in fulltime (35 hours) for a class of 12 trainees. The morning sessions are devoted to theory classes and concepts discussions, while the afternoon sessions focus on hands-on practical experience, including system sizing,

installation and measurement of PV modules, inverters, charge controllers, and complete PV systems. The last session of the course includes a written assessment for evaluation of the learnt skills.

The contents of the theory classes are listed in Table 1. Although it includes a general overview of solar radiation, PV fundamentals and a short module on system sizing, the special emphasis of the course is given to practical installation issues related to system configurations, components, wiring as well as safety precautions. The course bibliography includes general texts on PV installation [1, 2] as well as specific instructions regarding safety issues [3] and a guidebook especially developed for this course [4].

Table 1. Course contents.

Solar radiation Annual radiation

Solar Spectrum

Diffused and direct radiation

Position of the sun



Solar trajectory maps (stereograph projection)

PV fundamentals Photovoltaic solar cells

Solar module IV characteristic Cell parameters Efficiency

Autonomous PV systems System configuration

System sizing



Charge controllers

Grid connected PV systems System configuration

System components Configurations for inverter connection Choice of inverters Wiring

Protection elements Grid connection

Safety PV systems handling hazards

Electric hazards Precautions

Risks associated to batteries Other risks

Safety recommendations

One of the defining characteristics of the PV System Installation Training Course is hands-on experience. The course thus includes a series of three afternoon lab classes where the trainees will

image184be involved in the tasks listed in Table 2, which also includes details on the equipment required for each task.

Подпись:Measurement of: Scope

• Solar radiation Multimeters

• Environment and module temperature, Therm°meters

• Battery charge current and voltage PV hybrid system

PV facade system

• Inverter output current.

Comparison between systems Discussion.

Подпись:System sizing Retscreen software

Tests and measurements Solterm 5 software

Discussion Multimeters

Electric wires Current shunts PV module [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Education in the Field of Photovoltaics at the Czech Technical University in Prague

V. Benda

Department of Electrotechnology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Czech Technical University in Prague
Technicka 2, 166 27 Praha 6, CZECH REPUBLIC
E-mail: benda@fel. cvut. cz


Photovoltaics has been recognised as a renewable energy technology that has the potential to contribute significantly to future energy supply. The demand for specialists in photovoltaics is expected to increase considerably anticipated in the relatively near future. Education and training are needed for specialists in this field, in order to establish an infrastructure and to meet the requirements of the market.

At the Czech Technical University in Prague, a course in Photovoltaic Systems, dealing with PV system technology (28 hours of lectures, 28 hours of exercises) forms a part of the master study programme in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology. A course of similar length on Photovoltaic Systems has been included in the master study programme in Intelligent Buildings. This paper provides information about the course structure.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, solar cells, education

1. Introduction

In recent years, photovoltaics has received a great deal of attention and funding as a renewable technology that has the potential to contribute significantly to future energy supply. It is the task of scientists, engineers and businessmen to develop this technology into cost-efficient applications, and it is the task of educators to prepare not only specialists who will develop photovoltaics but also members of the general public to be aware of the issues involved in this field.

Impressive progress has been made in PV technology over the past twenty years. This is evident from the lower costs, the rising efficiency and the great improvements in system reliability and yield. Yearly growth rates in the period from 2000 to 2007 were on an average more than 40%, and in 2007 PV industrial production grew by almost 60%. In 2007 the production level reached 4.2 GWp. Photovoltaics is one of the most dynamically growing industries at the present time [1].

The most of PV systems has been installed in Europe due to introduction of a feed-in tariff for on-grid systems (starting in 2000 in Germany). In 2000 was also stated the target 3 GWp for cumulative photovoltaic system capacity installed in the European Union by 2010. The real growth rate is much higher than the planned rate, and 3 GWp have been reached before the end of 2007. A level of 6 GWp may be reached by 2010 [2].


Figure.1. The growth of the world PV cell production

The growth of photovoltaics is connected with an increased demand for specialists. In Europe, several tens of thousands of new jobs are likely to be created in the field of photovoltaics in the next five years

[2] . It is not only the photovoltaics industry that will require people to be educated in photovoltaics. It will also be necessary to ensure that the general public knows about the nature, application and dissemination of photovoltaic systems.

Vision 2030

The ESTTP’s main objective is to create the right conditions in order to fully exploit the solar thermal potential for heating and cooling in Europe and worldwide. This would ensure long-term technological leadership of the European industry.

This potential will not be completely achieved by 2030. However, under positive framework conditions, it will be possible to substantially expand the use of solar thermal energy, and to establish the technological basis for achieving full potential in the following two decades.

As a first step for the development of the Deployment Roadmap and of the Strategic Research Agenda, the ESTTP has developed a vision for solar thermal energy in 2030. Its key elements are to:

• establish the Active Solar Building as a standard for new buildings by 2030 — Active Solar buildings cover 100% of their heating and cooling demand with solar energy;

• establish Active Solar Renovation as a standard for the refurbishment of existing buildings by 2030 — Active Solar renovated buildings are heated and cooled to at least 50% with solar thermal


• use solar thermal energy to cover a substantial share of the industrial process heat demand up to 250°C, including heating and cooling, as well as desalination and water treatment and a wide range of other high-potential processes; and

• achieve widespread use of solar energy in existing and future district heating and cooling networks, where it is particularly cost-effective.


The dissemination of user-developed innovations is essential if conclusive outcomes and added value products are pursued. Knowledge sharing and the construction of ideas under similar and complementary backgrounds avoids not only resources spare by different inventors but also allows the creation of more complete products that can effectively respond to the needs felt by the consumers. The passage to product development and manufacture raises several questions, namely, the importance of interacting with strategic partners and supporters that allow the achievement of economies of scale during product production and distribution. When talking in physical products, the prototype phase, foreseen by idea generation, is of greater importance. The results achieved in this phase, which expresses the feasibility of ideas, are crucial and have to be strategically thought in order to effectively foster the creation and development of new products.

At this point it’s important to explore Von Hippel’s (2004) question of “how can or should user innovation be transferred to manufacturers for large scale diffusion?”. According to this author there are three possible methods. Two methods are based on manufacture’s willingness to support and actively seek for user innovations. They can search for product developments that according to their market perspective can became profitable commercial products, or they can promote user interaction through the provision of toolkits for user innovation. A third hypothesis explores the possibility of users becoming manufacturers.

Further implementation of “Solar Thermal Obligation” measures

Within the recently approved Energy Efficiency National Action Plan [21], some additional actions of the type “Solar Thermal Obligation” are introduced in the following programmes:

i) Energy Eficiency in Buildings

a. Measure “Micro-production” (R&S6M1) — incentive to micro-power production (PV, wind, hydro, biomass, …), with the mandatory installation of at least 2 m2 (on a basis of 1 m2 per 1 kW installed) of solar thermal to access a bonus on the kWh tariff, with exemption of the municipal licensing for small installations,

b. Measure “Service Buildings” (R&S5M2) — Implementation of solar thermal and of microproduction in schools;

ii) Renewables in the Moment

a. Measure “Solar Thermal” (R&S6M2), to get a solar thermal market of 175,000 m2/year — dissemination campaigns, incentives programme for the installation of new solar thermal (fiscal benefit up to 30% of the investment within the Income

Tax of Natural Persons, with a limit of €777), mandatory installation of solar thermal in new buildings, oriented programmes for specific segments (social dwellings, swimming-pools and showers, solar condominium);

iii) Energy Eficiency in the Public Sector

a. Measure “Buildings” —

i. Energetic Certification of the State Buildings (E8M1), covering 100% of the State buildings until 2015,

ii. Solar thermal in swimming pools (E8M2) — installation of solar thermal systems for solar hot water in swimming-pools and balnearies, covering 285 swimming-pools (property of both the State and the private sector) until 2015, including 100% of public swimming-pools and Balnearies,

iii. Solar thermal in sport parks (E8M3) — installation of solar thermal systems for solar hot water, covering 80% of the actual balnearies until 2015.

Meanwhile, it is expected a revision of the actual regulation [7-9], in the way of the answers given on the RCCTE Questions & Answers [19], as well the implementation of actions to overcome the referred (in point 3) lack of adequate knowledge by the stakeholders.



The research carried out by the PSE-ARFRISOL Group has as a principal objective to develop the passive solar techniques and the integration of active systems during five years (2005-2010). The PSE-ARFRISOL which is supported by the Spanish Government is currently the principal project in that group. It uses several effective techniques to reduce the total energy demand, such as cross ventilation, shadowings, greenhouses or special windows.

People knows that Spain is one of the European countries with more solar radiation. The Spanish researchers are looking for the way to take advantage of the Sun through solar energy use in buildings. PSE-ARFRISOL includes five zones in Spain. Asturias, Soria and Madrid are cooler climates than Almeria, with a blazing sun. The scientists will equip every building with experimental systems based in solar passive and active technologies for heating and cooling.

For example, in Soria, which is a cold area in Spain during winter, the scientists have thought in low consumption biomass boilers to provide the comfort to the future users. However, in the south of Spain (Almeria), the RDBP will contain an absortion pump, like the other building prototypes. It is a system which uses hot water from the solar collector field to produce cooling energy and offer the best conditions of comfort.

image193The strategy of this project is to save up to 60% of energy demand in offices buildings using passives techniques. Moreover, by means of active techniques (solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic panels) the conventional consumed energy will be reduced by 30%. In this kind of buildings, the users could save up to 90% by the combination of passive and active techniques. The Spanish government would like promoting the change of the society mind about these terms.

The PSE-ARFRISOL Group has a difficut labour based in monitoring all the data related to the energy demand (temperature, humity, energy flux…). Besides, the data will be compared to energy demand of a reference building in order to demostrate the energy saving.

Подпись:image195F.6 Data system

After at least a year of experimentation by collecting data, the workgroup will be able to demostrate how close reality is from simulation, and this will be useful to make more accurate each simulation model for future references. This is the most important part because the energy saving in office buildings based on real data could achieve a quota around 80%. The overcost of Bioclimatic office buildings would not be higher than 15%. According to IDAE, the overcost in office buildings due to the energetic requirements of the new Spanish Building Technical Code (CTE) will be around 5%. This higher initial cost will be compensated with an important reduction of the energy bill to pay during the building life period. These data will be proved by the end of the project and they will be spread into the society with real guarentees. They will help to change the people mind.

Dissemination activities related to solar cooling by means of the Project Best Results

J. Vicente11*, L. Bujedo1, C. de-Torre1 , P. Caballero1, C. Sanz1, S. Sanz1, A. Macia1.,

J, Rodriguez2

1CARTIF, Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo Parc 205, 47151 Boecillo, Spain
2Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research. Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bozen/Bolzano. Italy

* Corresponding Author, iulvic@,cartif. es


The BEST RESULT project idea was born and developed by actors, involved in training and diffusion activities in the field of RES (Renewable Energy Sources) technologies, who experienced the strong need to raise the skills and know-how about RES among suppliers of house building and energy systems (installers, technicians, professionals, sellers, planners, etc.). Partners noticed the lack of knowledge amongst suppliers and the need to support both RES supply and demand in the sector of small scale RES applications in buildings. To solve this problem at a European level, the BEST RESULT partners are planning both common and local activities addressing RES suppliers, as basic and specialized training and updating events, workshops, visits to exchange know-how and working experiences, E-learning common platform. Many communication and information events will address the general public as part of the strategy to raise awareness of RES opportunities among European citizens. In this framework, CARTIF has carried out some tasks directed towards making diffusion of solar cooling and biomass: e-learning, training courses, local training workshops, technical visits, etc. Here we are going to focus on the solar cooling tasks giving first a general view of the project.

Keywords: solar cooling, renewable energy sources, buildings, training, diffusion.

1. Introduction

1.1. Objectives

As establish [1], the BEST RESULT project aims to develop a working strategy to extend the market of small scale RES applications in the building and energy sector through common and local activities addressing RES suppliers and consumers. All activities are aimed at opening new market opportunities and raising suppliers’ awareness and knowledge of RES applications by providing information and suggestions on how to improve their positioning inside the market. Information and communication activities targeting the general public or specific groups of consumers will simultaneously support the demand side. Strategies will be developed for a better internal and external communication tools among all the supply and demand actors of the building RES market. Good coordination and cooperation at European as well as at national and local level will permit to carry out interesting activities, bringing a common result in this European project fulfilment.

Qualitative Signs of Goal attainment

School girls were very enthusiastic participate and learn during the energy institute. Many expressed the desire to study science and engineering as they grow up and further their education. The level of curiosity among young women and girls was extremely high at the new technologies introduced in their community. The community was very thankful to the funders and extremely jubilant at the relieve the energy system and the water supply gave them, particularly the women. These sentiments were very evident during the dedication of the new Community Center and the Power systems.

Rural women from Banga Village, the project main site, have become more organized and participatory in socioeconomic activities. The rural community has become visibly more lively and exuberant. There appears to be an increased interest in the current affairs by rural women. There is a general believe among the women that live is better and that there is hope for an improvement in their economy.

CSP technologies in Iran: Now and Future

Solmaz Bakhshi Sarabi1*, Shirin Bahar1 and Meryam Daryabegy1

1 Iran Renewable energy organization (SUNA) Yadegar-E-Emam Highway, Dadman blvd, Shahrak Ghods P. O.BOX: 14665-1169 Tehran, Iran Corresponding Author, SolmazBakhshi@gmail. com


The limited global fossil reserves make great problems for human beings in future. Iran dependency on the oil export and also increasing energy demands of the country will drastically affect national economic in near future. Diversifying energy resources is the best solution for this upcoming problem and renewable energy resources like wind, solar and geothermal are the best resources for providing national energy demand. On the other hand, enough solar irradiation in Iran makes great opportunities for producing electrical energy. In this respect, governmental decision makers make new incentives for utilizing renewable energy especially solar energy. For achieving this objective the first demonstration parabolic trough solar thermal power plant started for evaluating technical and financial issues in future scaled up projects. Moreover installing the first demonstrated power plant will unclose many environmental benefits, energy saving and other beneficiaries in different aspects. This paper is an overview of Iran solar irradiation atlas in comparison with the world’s irradiation which is a significant parameter in future planning for installing CSP technologies in Iran. On the other hand, a brief overview on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC) is presented for a rough cost comparison. This comparison in other countries with higher LEC shows that CSP technologies will compete with fossil fuels technologies in near future. Although there is a high priority for planning renewable energy projects considering critical environmental problems and limited fossil fuels, governmental financial aids are not enough to promote private investors on constructing solar power plants. In these white papers, some governmental projects which were planned for development of solar power systems in Iran are investigated. These projects have been executed now and the others will start in near future. Implementing these projects will probably drive some other solar thermal projects in near future while the technical experiment during these projects will support investors by technical information or providing low cost equipments for prospective solar power plants. Moreover, in near future Global Electricity Market will be a great enterprise to make developing countries such as Iran, extracting energy from their natural resources like sun and transmitting it to other countries. Besides, there are other international commitments such as Kyoto Protocol which makes developed country to control and decrease CO2 emissions and oblige them to invest on solar power plants in developing countries. The best answer to these reasons and future vision about Iran energy portfolio was CSP technologies which were discussed in this white paper as a brief overview to Iran solar energy now and future.

Keywords: CSP, solar irradiation atlas, Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC), Global Electricity Market, Kyoto Protocol

1. Introduction

Limited fossil fuel, environmental hazards and many other social and political problems motivate renewable technology utilization instead of fossil fuel in many countries. The most available energy resource is solar energy which is accessible everywhere. There is no limitation for converting solar energy into heat or power directly except one: the high installation cost in comparison with the conventional fossil fueled power generators. However limited resources and social cost of using fossil fuels will make the price of solar systems competitive with conventional power generators in near future. Thus planning for constructing infrastructures for producing solar system equipments in mass scale and simultaneously determining different incentives for investors are two main vital necessities. Although Iran is a great importer of fossil fuels but domestic energy demand will increase significantly during 10 years due to population growth. Unfortunately the whole fossil resources will consume for domestic demand which will decrease national income based on fossil fuel export. Thus, there is a high priority to utilize another source of energy in our portfolio and solar energy is an appropriate option.

The other important motivator for using solar technologies is international commitments such as Kyoto protocol which will limit CO2 production. Every country has a limited permit for producing greenhouse gases and installing renewable power plants will help every country to control these emissions.

Подпись: Fig. 1.The World Solar Energy Map showing the global solar resource available

Although there are many incentives for utilizing solar energy there is a great obstacle against CSP deployment. The high cost of installation makes these power plants economically unfeasible. Iran government determined some incentives for deploying CSP power plants like purchasing the electrical power of solar thermal power plants 6.5 times higher than the price of electrical power produced by conventional fossil fueled power plants. However because of the governmental subsides for fossil fuel consumed by power plants, the LEC price of electricity is very low in Iran. This price is about 0.01$/kWh for conventional power plants. So the CSP technologies are still unfeasible in Iran. Thus government plans to consider some other incentives like different loans and technical support to make the CSP technology feasible. These solar systems will be feasible with these incentives. On the other hand, Iran solar energy potential in comparison with other countries will decrease the LEC price of CSP power plants electricity significantly.

Figure 1 illustrates the global solar irradiance atlas and considering Iran location, solar energy potential is appropriate for using in different applications. Iran solar irradiation is about 2100 kWh/m2 annually [7].

Iran is located in the solar band so there is a significant solar energy resource and it is favorable for utilizing in solar power plants. The irradiance ranged from 4500 to 5750 Wh/m2 daily. Figure 2 illustrates Iran Solar Irradiation atlas [7].


Fig. 2. Iran Daily Solar Irradiance [7] (Wh/m2 per day)

In Europe, the electricity cost of most renewable energies will cross below the cost offossil fuel driven plants between 2010 and 2020(MED-CSP, 2005). The same trend will also occur for Iran in near term. Thus Iranian policy makers are obliged to focus on renewable energy technologies in near future. Table 1 illustrates Iran renewable energy share predicted by DLR based on current economic potential (MED-CSP, 2005). Due to these expectations, many different solar projects was defined and implemented in Iran by government. These projects includes: the first pilot solar thermal power plant in Shiraz, Taleghan Test Facility Site and Yazd solar power plant. The main objective of implementing pilot solar power plant was assessing domestic potential for manufacturing parabolic through facilities in large scale. Some other activities such as commissioning a solar test facility site were planned for further assessment of CSP power plants. The Yazd Solar Power Plant is planned to implement as the first hybrid solar power plant with a fossil fueled power plant.